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9 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
list bacterial requirements for cell growth
1. carbon
2. nitrogen
3. energy source
4. water
5. certain ions (IRON is essential)
[Note: oxygen is not always requried for bacteria]
list oxygen requirements for bacteria
1. anaerobe - grow in absence of O; use fermentation.
2. facultative anaerobe - carries out aerobic respiration, can switch to fermentation in absence of O
3. microaerophilic - requires low levels of O
4. obligate aerobe - only carries out aerobic respiration
3 pathways to energy formation from pyruvate
1. fermentation - least energy, by facultative anaerobes.
2. aerobic respiration - highest yield ATP, involves TCA & oxidative phosphorylation, cytochromes on bacterial cell membrane, oxygen final e- acceptor
3. anaerobic respiration - not as efficient as aerobic respiration. non-oxygen inorganic molec final e- acceptor (ex. No2, H2S)
most bacterial pathogens use oxygen in what way?
facultative anaerobe
define operon
groups of one or more genes expressed from a promoter and ending with a stop codon
lytic and lysogenic bacteriophages
1. lysogenic (temperate) infection can lead to cell lysis or integration of phage DNA into the chromosome
2. lytic (virulent) rapid replication: 20 min. from infection to lysis. leads to cell death and production of new phage.
define transposons
genetic elements mediate their own transfer to another location on chrom, to plasmid, or to another unrelated bacteria
describe evolution of methycillin and vancomycin resistant Staph. aureus
transition from MSSA to MRSA. ...more?
Contrast transformation, transduction and conjugation.
1.transformation - take up naked DNA and integrate
2.transduction - donor DNA carried to recepient by a phage
3.conjugation - bacterial sex with pilus