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9 Cards in this Set

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describe specific mechanisms of adaptation to stress in cells.
1. atrophy - shrinkage in size
2. hypertrophy - inc size of cells/organ
3. hyperplasia - inc number of cells in an organ or tissue
4. metaplasia - reversible change in which one adult epithelia type is replaced by another adult epithelial type. (ex. squamous metaplasia in chronic bronchitis), can give rise to dysplasia or squamous cell carcinoma.
5. dysplasia - epithelial or mesenchymal cells that have undergone proliferation and atypical cytologic alterations involving cell size, shape, and orientation. dysplasia -> cancer (ex. leukoplakia,
three types of cells with dif cell life-cycle patterns
1. labile (G1) dividing all the time, ex. epithelium & stem cells.
2. stable (G0) holding pattern, ex. liver parencyhma & smooth muscle cells.
3. nondividing permanent cells - out of cell cycle, ex. neurons, cardiac myocytes
types of hyperplasia
1. physiologic - hormonal induced - breast,uterus
2. compensatory - ex. partial hepatectomy
3. pathologic - excessive hormonal stimulation
4. viral induced - papillomaviruses
causes of hypertrophy
increased functional demand
hormonal stimulation
types of hypertrophy
1. physiologic - uterus during pregnancy
2. pathologic - LVH dur to hypertension or calcific aortic stenosis
define atrophy (give an example), and list causes of atrophy
shrinkage in size of cell by loss of structural components (disuse atrophy)
1. dec work load
2. loss of innervation
3. diminished blood supply
4. inadequate nutrition
5. loss of endocrine stimulation
6. aging
A 50-year old man had renal cell carcinoma for which he underwent unilateral nephrectomy. The contralateral kidney would later show signs of:
Hypertrophy
At autopsy, one year after the onset of pituitary insufficiency, the thyroid was pathologically altered and showed signs of diffuse:
Atrophy
The appearance of intestinal epithelium among atrophic gastric glands in patients with chronic gastritis is an example of:
Metaplasia