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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
idea that there is an explicit link b/w the grammar of a language and the culture of the people who speak that language
figure of speech in which linguistic expressions are taken from one area of experience and applied to another
domain of experience
area of human experience (business, war, science, family life) from which people borrow meaning to apply to other areas
key metaphors
used to identify metaphors that dominate the meanings that people in a specific culture attribute to their experience
key scenarios
dominant stories or myths that portray the values and beliefs of a specific society
selective perception
tendency of people to see and recognize only those things they expect to see or those that confirm their view of the world
suppressing evidence
tendency of people to reject or ignore evidence that challenges an accepted belief
use of a symbol, gernerally an animal or a plant, as a physical representation for a group, generally a clan
a dramatic rendering or social portrayal of meanings shared by a specific body of people in a way that makes them seem correct and proper
symbolic actions
the activities-including ritual, myth, art, dance, and music-that dramatically depict the meanings shared by a specific body of people
a story or narrative that portrays the meanings people give to their experience
interpretive drift
the slow, often unacknowledged shift in someone's manner of interpreting events as he or she becomes involved w/ a particular activity
secondary elaboration
attempts by people to explain away inconsistencies or contradictions in their beliefs
revitalization movements
attempts by people to construct a more satisfying culture
family of orientation
the family group that consists of ego and ego's father, mother, and siblings
family of procreation
family group that consists of husband, wife, and their children
bilateral kinship
a system in which individuals trace their descent through both parents
nuclear family
family group consisting of father, mother, and their own or adopted children
matrilineal kinship
system of descent in which persons are related to their kin through the mother only
patrilineal kinship
system of descent in which persons are related to their kin through the father only
the requirement that when a couple marries, the groom must work for the bride's parents for some specified period of time
lineage that is formed by tracing descent in the female line
extended family
family group based on blood relations of 3 or more generations
lineage that is formed by tracing descent in the male line
incest taboo
rule that prohibits sexual relations among certain categories of kin, such as brothers or sisters, parents and children, or in some cases, cousins
a unilineal descent group whose members claim descent from a common ancestor
rule that requires a person to marry someone outside one's own group
valuables that a groom or his family are expected or obligated to present to the bride's family
the goods and valuables a bride's family supplies to the groom's family or to the couple
a form of marriage in which a person is permitted to have more than one spouse
partible inheritance
a form of inheritance in which the goods or property of a family is divded among the heirs
impartible inheritance
a form of inheritance in which family property is passed undivided to one heir
social identities
views that people have of their own and others' positions in society. Individuals seek confirmation from others that they occupy the positions on the social landscape that they claim to occupy
a view of the self in which the individual is primarily responsible for his or her own actions
a view of the self in which the individual cannot be conceived of as existing separately from society or apart from his or her status or role
a view of the self that defines each person as a replica of all humanity, the locus of motivations and drives, capable of acting independently from others
view of the self that is context-dependent ; there is no intrinsic self that can possess enduring qualities
identity toolbox
features of a person's identity (gender, age, personal appearances,etc) that he or she chooses to emphasize in constructing a social self
positive identity
the attribution to people of personal characteristics believed to be desirable
negative identity
the attribution of personal characteristics believed to be undesirable
rites of passage
term suggested for rituals that mark a person's passage from one identity or status to another
refers tot he deployment of the penis as a symbol of masculine social power and dominance
principle of reciprocity
the social principle that giving a gift creates soical ties w/ the person receiving it, who eventurally is obliged to reciprocate
goods that carry little personal meaning, as distinguished frrom possessions, whoch are associated somehow w/ the producer and/or distributor of the goods
identity struggles
term coined to characterized interaction in which there is a discrepancy b/w the identity a person claims to possess and the idnetity attributed to that person by others
social classes
system of social stratification based on income or possesssion of wealth and resources. Individual social mobility is possible in a class system
system of social stratification based on assignment at birth to the ranked social or occupational groups of parents. There is no mobility from one caste to another, and intermarriage may be forbidden
integrative theory of social stratification
theory based on the assumption that social hierarchy is necessary for the smooth functioning of society
exploitative theory of social stratification
theory based on the assumption that social stratification and hierarchy exist b/c one group of indiviudals seeks to take advantage of another group for economic purposes
means of production
the materials, such as land, machines, or tools that people need to produce things
political or social repression
the use of force by a ruling group to maintain political, economic, or social control over other groups
ideology of class
set of beliefs characteristic of stratified societies that justifies the divsion of a society into groups w/ differential rights and privileges as being natural and right
violent revolution
ther term coined that necessary response of workers to their repression by the ruling class
culture of poverty
phrase to describe the life-style and world view of people who inabity urban and rural slums
generalized reciprocity
form of exchange in which persons share what they have w/ others but expect them to reciprocate later
balanced reciprocity
form of exchange in which items of equal or near-equal value are exchanged on the spot
negative reciprocity
form of exchange in which the object is to get something for nothing or to make a profit