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22 Cards in this Set

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ECM of bone (3)
Bones are hard bodies of CT whose ECM is a mixture of calcium phosphate crystals, organic molecules, and protein fibers.
Intracartilaginous (endochondral) Ossification
In all the bones of the upper and lower limbs (except for the clavicle), a cartilaginous model of the bones first replaces the initial mesenchymal model, and the deposition of bony tissue then subsequently occurs within the cartilaginous model. (The process if bony tissue replacing cartilaginous tissue)
Long bones of the limbs (10)
humerus of the arm, radius and ulna of the forearm, metacarpals of the palm, phalanges of the thumb and fingers, femur of the thigh, tibia and fibula of the leg, metatarsals of the foot, and the phalanges of the toes.
Diaphysis
Intracartilaginous ossification of the long bones of the limbs begins during early fetal development at a single primary center of ossiifcation in the middle of the diaphysis (shaft) of each long bone
Epiphysis
A secondary center of ossification appears at one or both ends of the bone after birth. The end part of a long bone that develops from this is the epiphysis.
Epiphyseal plate (EP)
At the end of a long bone that bears a growing epiphysis, a zone of hyaline cartilage called an EP intervenes between the diaphysis and epiphysis.
Metaphysis
The end part of the diaphysis that is in direct contact with the EP. It is where new bone tissue is deposited.
Growth Plates
A zone of proliferating chondrocytes, which produce a zone of new hyaline cartilage is in the epiphyseal side of each EP. This cartilage is then replaced by bony tissue in the metaphysis, which increases the diaphysis' length.
Epiphyseal Line
By age 25, bony tissue replaces each epiphyseal plate and the diaphysis fuses with the epiphysis to form mature bone. The zone of fusion consists of dense bony tissue so it can be seen in radiographs as this line.
Salter-Harris Classification Scheme for Epiphyseal Plate Fracture - Type I fracture
Extends through only the EP
Salter-Harris Classification Scheme for Epiphyseal Plate Fracture - Type II fracture
Extends through the EP and adjacent metaphysis
Salter-Harris Classification Scheme for Epiphyseal Plate Fracture - Type III fracture
Extends through the EP and epiphysis
Salter-Harris Classification Scheme for Epiphyseal Plate Fracture - Type IV fracture
Extends through the epiphysis, EP, and metaphysis
Salter-Harris Classification Scheme for Epiphyseal Plate Fracture - Type V fracture
Is a severe compression injury to the EP
Differences between the types of fractures
Type I and II have a more favorable prognosis than III, IV, and V. Types III, IV, and V fractures extends through the epiphyseal side of the EP thus injuring the proliferating chondrocytes in the EP, which can increase the likelihood of retarded longitudinal growth at the end of the bone and of premature fusion of the epiphysis with the diaphysis.
Cartilages (ECM)
Are bodes of firm or hard CT whose ECM is a mixture of organic molecules and protein fibers. The lack of calcium phosphate crystal deposits causes radiolucent images on radiographs.
Joints (what they are and what they consist of) and their articular surfaces
The sites of union between bones or bodies of cartilage, and consist of the tissues that unite the bones or cartilages at these sites.
Articular surfaces of a joint are the surface areas that oppose each other at the joint
Synovial joints and cavity
Almost all the joints of the upper and lower limbs of an adult are synovial joints, which are an articulation in which the articular surfaces of the bones are separated from each other within the confines of a membrane-lined, fluid-filled cavity called the synovial cavity. These joints provide the greatest range and freedom movement.
Synovial membrane and fluid
The articular surfaces of the bones in a synovial joint are covered with (hyaline) cartilage. The fluid-filled cavity is directly lined by a synovial membrane, except where the cavity is bordered by articular cartilage. The synovial membrane secretes the synovial fluid that fills the synovial cavity. The entire joint is enclosed within a Capsule of Fibrous CT
Tendons
The bands of CT that typically extend between the belly of a skeletal muscle and one of its attachment sites. It is always part of a muscle and is very flexible. It's basically the ECM of muscle.
Ligaments
Bands of CT that bind together bones or bodes of cartilage. Never are part of muscle and aren't flexible, but can be stretched.
Fascia
Any collection of CT large enough to be described by the unaided eye. Is like tissue paper in cadaver.