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165 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy.
psychoactive drug
a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood.
Freud’s theory of personality and therapeutic technique that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts. Freud believed the patient’s free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences—and the therapist’s interpretations of them—released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self­-insight
psychological dependence
a psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions.
psychological disorder
deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional behavior patterns.
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior.
the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them
psychophysiological illness
any stress­-related physical illness, such as hypertension and some headaches.
psychosexual stages
the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id’s pleasure­-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones.)
surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior.
an emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and someone who suffers from psychological difficulties
the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing
an event that decreases the behavior that it follows
the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters.
random assignment
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups.
random sample
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.
defense mechanism that offers self­-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one’s actions
reaction formation
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety­-arousing unconscious feelings.
a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill­-in­-the­-blank test.
reciprocal determinism
the interacting influences between personality and environmental factors.
reciprocity norm
an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them.
a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple­-choice test.
a simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee­-jerk response.
refractory period
a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm.
psychoanalytic defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated.
regression toward the mean
the tendency for extremes of unusual scores to fall back toward their average.
the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage.
in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows.
relative deprivation
the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself
a memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time.
the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternate forms of the test, or on retesting.
REM rebound
the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation
REM sleep
a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active.
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)
the application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity.
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
heuristic judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety­-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.
in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety­-laden material.
respondent behavior
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus; Skinner’s term for behavior learned through classical conditioning.
reticular formation
a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal.
the light­-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information.
retinal disparity
a binocular cue for perceiving depth: By comparing images from the two eyeballs, the brain computes distance—between the two images, the closer the object.
the process of getting information out of memory storage.)
retroactive interference
the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information.
retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don’t respond
a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
rooting reflex
a baby’s tendency, when touched on the cheek, to turn toward the touch, open the mouth, and search for the nipple
Rorschach inkblot test
the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann ; seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots.
savant syndrome
a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing.
scapegoat theory
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame.
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables.
a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information.
a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions.
secondary sex characteristics
nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair
selective attention
the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus, as in the cocktail party effect.
according to Maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self­-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one’s potential.
(1) a sense of one’s identity and personal worth. (2) all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, “Who am I?”
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.
one’s feelings of high or low self­-worth.
self­-serving bias
a readiness to perceive oneself favorably
semantic encoding
the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words.
the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the study of meaning.
the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment
sensorimotor stage
in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities
sensorineural hearing loss
hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea’s receptor cells or to the auditory nerves; also called nerve deafness.
sensory adaptation
diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation.
sensory cortex
the area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations
sensory interaction
the principle that one sense may influence another, as when the smell of food influences its taste.
sensory memory
the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.
sensory neurons
neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system.
serial position effect
our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.
set point
the point at which an individual’s “weight thermostat” is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight
sexual disorder
a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning.
sexual orientation
an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one’s own sex or the other sex
sexual response cycle
the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson—excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.
short­-term memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten
signal detection theory
a theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus amid background stimulation ). Assumes there is no single absolute threshold and detection depends partly on a person’s experience, expectations, motivation, and level of fatigue.
periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness—as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation. (Adapted from Dement, 1999.)
sleep apnea
a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings
social­-cognitive perspective
views behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons (and their thinking) and their social context
social­-responsibility norm
an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them.
social clock
the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement.
social exchange theory
the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.
social facilitation
stronger responses on simple or well­-learned tasks in the presence of others.
social leadership
group­-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support
social learning theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished.
social loafing
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.
social psychology
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.
social trap
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self­-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.
somatic nervous system
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body’s skeletal muscles. Also called the skeletal nervous system
source amnesia
attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined.
spacing effect
the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long­-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.
split brain
a condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) between them
spontaneous recovery
the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response
spotlight effect
overestimating others’ noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders
standard deviation
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested standardization group.
the widely used American revision) of the original intelligence test.
statistical significance
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance.
a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people.
stereotype threat
a self­-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype.
drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and Ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.)
the retention of encoded information over time
stranger anxiety
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age.
an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind.
the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, , that we appraise as threatening or challenging.
structured interviews
interview process that asks the same job­-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales.
subjective well­-being
self­-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. Used along with measures of objective well­-being (for example, physical and economic indicators) to evaluate people’s quality of life.
below one’s absolute threshold for conscious awareness
the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations.
superordinate goals
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation.
a technique for ascertaining the self­-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them
sympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. The tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or cleft.
the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language.
systematic desensitization
a type of counterconditioning that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety­-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias.
tardive dyskinesia
involuntary movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and limbs; a possible neurotoxic side effect of long­-term use of antipsychotic drugs that target D2 dopamine receptors.
task leadership
goal­-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals.
telegraphic speech
early speech stage
“go car”—using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting auxiliary words.
a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity.
temporal lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear.
agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm.
terror­-management theory
proposes that faith in one’s worldview and the pursuit of self­-esteem provide protection against a deeply rooted fear of death.
the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty.
the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.
the major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations.
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations.
theory of mind
people’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states—about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict
the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse.
token economy
an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats.
the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug’s effect.
top­-down processing
information processing guided by higher­-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations.
a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self­-report inventories and peer reports.
conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brains can interpret.
in psychoanalysis, the patient’s transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent
two­-factor theory
Schachter­-Singer’s theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal.
two­-word stage
beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two­-word statements
Type A
Friedman and Rosenman’s term for competitive, hard­-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger­-prone people.
Type B
Friedman and Rosenman’s term for easygoing, relaxed people.
unconditional positive regard
according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person.
unconditioned response (UR)
in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.
unconditioned stimulus (US)
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally—naturally and automatically—triggers a response.
according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware.
the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to.
variable­-interval schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals.
variable­-ratio schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
vestibular sense
the sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance.
virtual reality exposure therapy
An anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speaking.
visual capture
the tendency for vision to dominate the other senses.
visual cliff
a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals.
visual encoding
the encoding of picture images
the distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next. Electromagnetic wavelengths vary from the short blips of cosmic rays to the long pulses of radio transmission.
Weber’s law
the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount).
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests
Wernicke’s area
controls language reception—a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe
the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug
working memory
a newer understanding of short­-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual­-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long­-term memory.
X chromosome
the sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two males have one. from each parent produces a female child.
Y chromosome
the sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with a from the mother, it produces a male child.
Young­-Helmholtz trichromatic (three­-color) theory
the theory that the retina contains three different color receptors—one most sensitive to red, one to green, one to blue—which when stimulated in combination can produce the perception of any color.
the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo.