Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/21

Click to flip

21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
General Biology of Fungi
Cell walls of chitin, eukaryotic, non-photosynthetic.
Plant-like heterotrophs.
1. Primary decomposers of dead organic material.
2. Almost all vascular plants have fungi as nutritional partners.
3. Some fungi are pathogens for plants and animals.
4. Some are unicellular (yeasts)
Anatomy of Fungi
1. Most of the fungus' body is thread-like strands called hyphae (hyphus singular)
2. Hyphae grow throughout substrate, absorbing water and nutrients.
3. Web-like mass of hyphae is called mycelium.
4. Hyphae are partioned into cell-like structures called septa (plural of septum)
5. Septa are perforated to allow cytoplasm to exchange between cells.
Hyphae
Thread-like strands of a fungus' body.
Mycelium
Web-like mass of hyphae
Septa (plural of septum)
Hyphae are partioned into these cell-like structures that are perforated to allow cytoplasm to exchange between cells.
Fungi reproduction
Is both sexual and asexual.
Asexual reproduction via mitotic division of the cells in the hyphae.
Sexual reproduction is via spores.
Fungi asexual reproduction
Reproduction of fungi via the mitotic division of the cells in the hyphae.
Fungi sexual reproduction
Reproduction of fungi via spores.
1) Spores are non-motile (cannot move themselves)
2) Spores are produced through the sexual reproduction between 2 different fungi of the same species
3) Hyphae come in contact with each other and their cells share nuclei without fusing the chromosomes (n+n) DIKARYOTIC
4) Fruiting bodies: raised structures that are grown of n+n cells in order to produce and disperse spores.
Fruiting bodies
The raised structures, formed after the sexual reproduction between 2 hyphae of 2 different fungi of the same species, that are grown of n+n cells in order to produce and disperse spores.
Monokaryotic
Cells with 1 nucleus per cell (n)
Dikaryotic
Cells with 2 nuclei per cell (n+n)
Fungi Phyla Classifications
Based on the structure of the fruiting bodies.
Chytrids (ph. Chytridiomycota)
A phylum of the kingdom Fungi of the domain Eukarya.
Water fungi that can live under water.
Zygomycetes (ph. Zygomycota)
A phylum of the kingdom Fungi of the domain Eukarya.
1. Fruiting bodies are zygospores.
2. Most are decomposers in soil.
3. Sexual reproduction via fusion of hyphae (many lie dormant for years)
4. Hyphae grow from spores while zygospores grow from n+n hyphae.
Ascomycetes (ph. Asomycota)
A phylum of the kingdom Fungi of the domain Eukarya.
Commonly referred to as "sac fungi".
1. Fruiting bodies called ascocarps.
2. The ascocarp contains cells (ascus), each is n+n
3. In the ascii, the 2 nuclei fuse to form a diploid zygote
4. The zygote undergoes 1 meiotic division then multiple mitotic divisions to produce ascospores (n)
5. Ascospores spread to form new mycelia
Examples: yeasts, mildews, morels, and truffles
Basidiomycetes (ph. Basidiomycota)
A phylum of the kingdom Fungi of the domain Eukarya.
Commonly referred to as "Club Fungi".
1. Sexual reproduction via club-shaped fruiting bodies called basidiocarps that produce basidiospores.
2. Examples: mushrooms, puff balls, shelf fungi, smuts and rusts (plant parasites)
Lichens
A symbiont: Freddy Fungus and Annie Algae
1. Fungus provides rigid structure and water absorption storage
2. Internal algae provides food via photosynthesis to the fungus
3. Importances:
a) first stage of soil production on bare rock
b) first form of plant invasion (succession) in many areas
c) primary food source for caribou in winter
Mycorrhizae
Fungi associated with plants that assist plants with water absorption and plant supplies additional food to fungus.
1. Most of these fungi are species specific to a particular species of host planet.
2. Some of these fungi cover more than 35 acres.
Plant diseases caused by Fungi
1. Dutch Elm disease
2. Chestnut blight
Animal diseases caused by Fungi
Athlete's foot
Ringworm
Drugs made of fungi
1. Penicillin
2. Cyclosporin
3. Some headache & migraine treatments