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27 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Which lineages of large, multicellular eukaryotes occupy terrestrial environments?
land plants, animals, fungi
mutualists

-example?
Organisms that live in close relationship with a host and that benefits its host.

-in exchange for sugars produced by host plants, fungi provide plant with key nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus.
Mycorrhizal
Literally "fungal root".
Fungi that live in close assiciation w/plant roots.
Saprophytes
Literally "rotten plants"
Fungi that make their living by digesting dead plant material.
Peat

-importance?
partly decayed plant material.
-Peat from Carboniferous period became coal after being buried under other sediments and subjected to heat and pressure
Yeast
Any fungus growing as a single-celled form.
Mycelia
A mass of underground filaments that form the body of a fungus.

The form of a multicellular fungi.
Hyphae
The individual filaments that make up a mycelium
Heterokaryotic
literally "different kernael"

a cell that contains 2 haploid nuclei-one from each parent
Septa
Any wall-like structure. In fungi, cross-walls that divide fungul filaments into cell-like compartments.
Coenocytic
Containing many nuclei and a continuous cytoplasm through a filamentous body, w/o the body being divided into distinct cells. Some fungi are coenocytic.
4 groups (+ description) that fungi fall into reproductively
1)Chytridiomycota (live in H20, spores have flagella thus motile)
2) Zygomycota (literally “yoked-together fungi”. Hyphae are haploid and come in several mating types. When fuse together (mate) become spore-producing zygosporangium)
3)Basidiomycota (club fungi, mushrooms, puffballs, bracket fungi are reproductive structures of this group, basidia form at end of hyphae and produce spores)
4) Ascomycota (sac fungi, tips of hyphae produce sac-like cells called asci which produce spores)
Zygosporangium
Spore-producing structure in fungi that are members of the Zygomycota.
Basidia
literally "little-pedestals"
Specialized spore-producing cells at the ends of hyphae in club fungi
Asci
Specialized spore-producing cells found at the ends of hyphae in sac fungi.
Fungicides
molecules that are lethal to fungi
Chitin
Component of cell walls of fungi and other orgs.
Endophytic
literally "inside plants"
Fungi that live in the aboveground parts of plants
Ectomycorrhizal Fungi (EMF)
-Temperate forests
-hyphae extend outward
-hyphae extend between cells
-hyphae form dense sheath around root
-Most are basidiomycetes, a few are ascomycetes
Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF)
or Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizae
or Endomycorrhizal Fungi
Grow into cells of root tissue. for a pipeline that extends from inside plant cells in the root to soil. are zygomycetes. found in 80% of land plants. dominant in grasslands/tropics.
Commensals
Species that are dependent on another species but are neither beneficial or harmful
Saprophyte
Oranism that feeds primarily on dead plant material.
Etracellular Digestion
Digestion that takes place outside of the organism.
Spore in fungi
Most fundamental reproductive cell in fungi. The dispersal stage in fungal life cycle, produced during asexual + sexual reproduction.
Plasmogamy
Fusion of cytoplasm of 2 individuals. Occurs in many fungi.
Karyogamy
fusion of nuclei
Sporangium
Spore-producing structure found in some plants and fungi.