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63 Cards in this Set

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what are the 2 types of cutaneous fungal infections ?
dermatophytosis and tinea versicolor
What causes tinea versicolor?
malassezia furfur
AKA - pityrosporum orbiculare or pityrosporum ovale
What organism that can cause dermatophytosis glow under wood's lamp?
Microsporum
What is the cause of sporotrichosis?
sporothrix shenkii
What organism causes local pustules at site of puncture wounds by plants?
sphorthrix shenkii -
sporotrichosis
What organism looks like cigar-shaped budding yeast?
sporothrix shenkii
What are the 3 systemic fungal diseases?
coccidioidomycosis
histoplasmosis
blastomycosis
What are the opportunistic fungal infections?
cryptococcosis
candidiasis
aspergillosis
mucormycosis
(camc)
How is cryptococcosis acquired?
bird droppins with cryptococcus neoformans is inhaled --> asympt or pneumonia --> disseminate to CNS
What do candida albicans involved in an infection take on the shape of?
germ tubes and pseudohyphae
What is it called when aspergillosis chronically contaminates the bronchi?
Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis - asthmatic symptoms + high IgE titers
What monomorphic fungus grows in decaying vegetation, forms V-shaped septate hyphae and causes "fungus balls" ?
aspergillus - aspergillosis
What produces aflatoxin?
Aspergillus flavus
What patients are especially at risk for mucormycosis?
DKA, burns, or leukemia
What is the only life cycle stage of malarial organisms that can enter RBCs?
merozoites
malaria occurs when a mosquito bites a human and injects sporozoites into the blood stream. From there they go to what organ and become what?
liver; become merozoites
Merozoites leave the liver and enter the RBCs where they replicate and cause what every 48 hours (72 for malariae)?
hemolysis - severe
What is the only way by which malaria can be spread from animal or human to mosquito?
gametocytes
Asexual development of malaria occurs in the human/animal or mosquito?
human/animal
What causes malaria-like symptoms is diagnosed by trophozoites in RBCs making a maltese cross formation?
Babesia
What tissue protozoa must be diagnosed by bronchial lavage with silver stain of specimen?
pneumocystis carinii (pneumocystis jiroveci)
This tissue protozoa that causes bilateral rales & rhonchi and is treated with TMP-SMX is common in AIDS patients and premies
pneumocystis carinii (pneumocystis jiroveci)
What protozoa is acquired from food contaminated with cat feces, under-cooked meats, or inhalation of air rich in cat feces/litter dust?
toxoplasma gondii
What is the cause of Kala-Azar & Black Sickness?
sandfly bite - Leishmania donovani
What agent is used to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis?
Stibogluconate
What causes Chagas Disease?
kissing bug - Trypanosoma cruzi
How is chagas disease treated?
Nifurtimox
What is the vector for trypanosoma brucie?
tse-tse fly
What are the 2 subspecies of Trypanosoma brucei?
gambiense and rhodesiense
What protozoa causes African sleeping sickness?
Trypanosoma brucei -
gambiense
rhodesiense
What are the 3 parts of African Sleeping Sickness?
1) fever, spiking every 2 weeks
2) lymphadenopathy
3) encephalopathy --> sleep/wake cycle opposite
What is the treatment for African Sleeping Sickness?
Suramin or Pentamidine
What are the DOC in African Sleeping Sickness if the patient is encephalopathic?
Melarsoprol +/- prednisone or Eflornithine
What intestinal protozoa causes tear drop or flast-shaped ulcers in the colon resulting in bloody diarrhea?
Entamoeba histolytica
What intestinal protozoa infects the small intestine causing non-bloody/foul smelling diarrhea and is associated with hikers/camper drinking streat water?
Giardia lamblia
What amoeba is acquired by swimming in warm water in Souther US and enters nasal mucosa and passes thru cribiform plate and is rapidly fatal?
naegleria fowleri
What amoeba causes keratitis in healthy contact lens users?
Acanthamoeba castellanii
What are the two classifications for helmiths?
round worms (nematodes) & flat worms (platyhelminths)
What are the two further classifications of flatworms?
flukes (trematodes) and tapeworms (cestodes)
what is the name for blood flukes?
shistosoma
What must be present in the water in order for blood flukes to grow/develop?
snails
What effect do schistosoma mansoni and japonicum have?
portal HTN
What effect does schistosoma hematobium have?
bladder fibrosis --> bladder cancer
What schistosoma is ingested by eating raw fish?
clonorchis sinensis
What schistosoma is ingested with raw crab?
paragonimus westermani
Which form of shistosoma may lead to cholangitis --> cholangiocarcinoma?
clonorchis sinensis
What is the "pig tapeworm" ?
Taenia solium
What is the "beef tapeworm"?
Taenia saginata
What is the "fish tapeworm"?
Diphylloborthrium latum
What tapeworm will cause B12 deficiency?
"fish tapeworm" - diphylloborthrium latum
What is the "dog tapeworm"?
Echinococcus granulosus
What is the #1 helminth in the US?
"pinworm" Enterobius vermicularis
What is the name for the "pinworm"
Enterobius vermicularis
How is enterobius vermicularis diagnosed?
scotch tape test
What helminth causes perianal pruritis, especially at night?
Enterobius vermicularis
What is the largest intestinal nematode?
ascaris lumbricoides
What is the other name for Necator americanus?
"American hookworm" - New world hookworm
What is the difference between the American hookworm and the old world hookworm?
The old world hookworm HAS TEETH!
What organism is the "Old World Hookworm" ?
Ancylostoma duodenale
How is Trichinella spiralis ingested?
eating raw or undercooked pork, BEAR, or seal
What organims causes filariasis?
Wuchereria bancrofti
What disease literally makes your skin crawl?
Dranunculus medinensis - guinea fire worm
How is dranunculus medinensis eradicated from the body?
by rolling it on a stick