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33 Cards in this Set

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What are the two types of fungi that can cause systemic infections?
Opportunistic and deep-seated.
What are opportunistic mycoses caused by? Where are they found?
Fungi of low virulence in hosts with impaired immunity. Generally ubiquitous.
What infections are associated with opportunistic infections?
Candidosis, Aspergillosis, Hyalohyphomycosis and Zygomycosis.
What are deep seated mycoses caused by? Where are they found?
Fungi which are true pathogens in host with normal immunity.Usually limited geographical loaction.
What infections are associated with deep seated mycoses?
Cryptococcosis, Blastomycosis, Coccidioidomycosis, Paracoccidioidomycosis, Histoplasmosis.
What is Candida a commensal of?
Mucous membranes-vagina and oropharynx.
What causes vaginal candidiasis? What are the triggers?
Changes in the environment affecting the normal bacterial flora of the vagina. Antibiotic use, pregnancy, diabetes mellitus and oral contraceptive pill.
What are the manifestations of vaginal candidiasis?
Thick, white-cure like discharge, inflamed vaginal walls with adherent plaques of discharge, inflammation may extend onto vulva and perineum, intense itching.
What type of patients is oral candidasis seen in? What is its presentation?
Those with impaired immune system. Those on steroid therpay, cancer treatment or AIDs patients. Adherent white plawues on tongue or buccal mucosa with raw, bleeding mucose when scarped off and chronic atrophic candidasis beneath dentures.
What type of patients are seen with oesophageal candidiasis? What are its manifestations?
Those undergoing treatment for malignancy of haemopoeitic or lymphatic systems and AIDS patients. Painful swallowing, feeling of obstruction when swallowing, substernal chest pain, sometimes nausea and vomiting.
What group of patients are usually seen with nonesophageal gastrointestinal candidiasis? Where does it occur?
Those with oesophageal candidiasis.
Stomach and small or large bowel.
What is Candidaemia? What are the risk factors for it?
Candida in the bloodstream. Debilitation, recent surgery, immunosuppression, adminstration of antibiotics, intravascular cannulas, concurrent skin or mucous membrane canduduasis and patient on total parenteral nutrition.
What are the clinical manifestations for Candidaemia? How may it cause death? What is the mortality of candidaemia?
Skin nodules indicating haematogenous dissemination to skin, white "cotton wool" lesions on retina or in aqueous. Disseminates and grows in organs, often silently. 40%.
What is dissesminated candidiasis? Which organs may be involved?
Produce lesions in organs after dissemintaing from bloodstream. Ocular-"cotton wool" lesions causing permanent blindness, CNS-abscesses and meningits, Respiratory-haematogenous seeding producing finedly nodular, diffuse infiltrate, Endocarditis-valvular infection, Myocarditis-scattered microabscesses or pericarditis, musculoskeletal-infect bones, joints and muscles, intrabdominal-peritonitis and hepatosplenic.
What part of Aspergillosis is inhaled? What are the three most common pathogen causing species of Aspergillosis?
Conidia-a-sexual, non-motile spores of a fungus.
A. fumigatus,A. flavus and A. niger. (A. fumigatus is most common)
What are the four major groups of conditions causes by inhalation of Aspergillus conidia?
Pulmonary aspergillosis, disseminated aspergillosis, aspergillosis of the paranasal sinuses, cutaneous aspergillosis.
What are the three conditions included in pulmonary aspergillosis?
Allergic pulmonary conditions, aspergilloma (fungus ball) and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.
What diseases are allergic pulmonary conditions due to aspergillosis?
Extrinsic asthma flu-like + wheeze, extrinsic asthma alveolitis, no wheeze, and allergic bronchopulmonary , fungi grow in airways.
What is aspergilloma? How does it occur? Is it invasive? Presenting symtpom?
Fungus ball. Aspergillus colonises pre-fromed cavities as a result of TB or sarcoidosis. No, thoug can erode nearby structures. Haemoptysis.
What is invasvive pulmonary aspergillosis? How can it be fatal?
Necrotising pneumonia in which fungus invades small vessels leading to ischaemia and necrosis of surrounding tissues. Septic emboli carried though body causing abscesses.
What is disseminated aspergillosis?
Seen in immunocompromised with hematagenous dissemination usually starting in lung.
What two forms are there of apergillosis of the paranasal sinuses? What do they cause?
Non-invasive, chronic sinusistis and poorly draining sinuses, and invasive, fever, rhinitis and invasion into the orbit.
What occurs during cutaenous aspergillosis?
Erythematous papules or macules with progressive central necrosis.
What are hyalohyphomycoses caused by? What are two major genus of pathogen causing hyalhyphomycosis? What infections do they cause?
Hyaline hyphomycetes.
Acremonium abd Fusarium.
Mycotic keratitis (corneal infection), onychomycosis, skin infections and fungaemia and disseminated infection.
What is another name for the Zygomycosis? What are the two most commone genera of the Zygomycosis? How is infection acquired?
Mucormycosis.
Rhizopus and Mucor.
Inhalation, ingestion or inoculation into skin.
What types if infection are seen in zygomycosis and what are the symptoms?
Rhinocerebral zygomycosis- sinusitis with rapid invasion of orbit and brain, pulmonary zygomycosis-chest pain, haemoptysis and productive cough, cutaneous zygomycosis-cellulitis, ulceration, gangrene and disseminated zygomycosis-invasion of bloosdtream to organs.
What is cryptococcosis caused by? Which serotypes are associated with pigeons? Which are associated with eucalyptus trees? How do humans get it?
Cryptococcus neoformans.
A&D. B&C.
Inhalational route.
What are the clinical manifestations of cryptococcosis? What other organs may be affected?
Respiratory cryptococcosis-lung infection, CNS cryptococcosis-meningoencephalitis and cutaneous-10% of patients have skin lesions.
Bone. prostate, eye, liver, heart and kidneys.
What type of fungi are Blastomyces? What does this mean? What si the main cause for Blastomycosis?
Dimorphic-exist in fung or mycelial form.
Blastomyces dermatitidis.
Where is Blastomyces dermatitidis found? What forms does lastomycosis take?
Warm, moist, sil in USA, Canada and South Africa. Primary pulmonary disease-self-limiting flu and can cause lesions in bone, Chronic cutaneous disease-ulcerating lesions and possible bone invasion, Systemc disease-rapidly progressive disease involving many organs.
What is the cause of Coccidiodomycosis? Where is it found? What disease forms are seen?
Coccidioides immitis.
Dry soil in SW parts of USA.
Primary pulmonary disease, infection in AIDS patients.
What causes Paracoccidioidomycosis? Where is it found and in what type of people? What forms of disease does it cause?
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.
Soil in Central and South America, and most cases seen in agricultural workers.
Primary pulmonary disease and disseminated disease.
What is the cause of histoplasmosis? What does it orginate from and how may humans get it? What happens in most cases? In 5% of cases? 1%? In AIDS patients?
Histoplasma capsulatum.
Bird and bat faeces and many infections seen in those who inhale dust contaminated with faeces.
Asymptomatic.
Flu-like illness. Chronic progressive pulmonary disease.
Disseminated disease.