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36 Cards in this Set

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What dermatophytes are pathogenic in dogs and cats?
-Microsporum canis (most common)
-M. gypseum
-Trichophyton mentagrophytes (seen in rodents)
-Sporotrichosis?
How are Dermatophytes transmitted?
Dermatophytes are transmitted by contact w/ infected hairs, scales, or fungal elements
What are typical lesions and distribution patterns of dermatophyte infections in dogs?
-Classic lesions: annular areas of peripherally expanding alopecia, scale, crust, papules and pustules
-Nasal folliculitis and furunculosis
-Generalized seborrhea-like infection
-Dermatophytic kerion
-Onychomycosis (nail infection)
M. Canis
Head and front limbs
M. gypseum
Extremities and tail
T. mentagrophytes
Whole body
What are typical lesions and distribution patterns of dermatophyte infections in cats?
-Generalized infections are more common:
-Alopecia
-Folliculitis, erythema, scale, crust, papule
-Generalized seborrhea like eruption
-Milliary dermatitis = uncommon to be caused by dermatophytes (usually caused by fleas)
-Localized infections:
-One or more annular areas of alopecia
-May mimic chin acne or “stud tail”
-Onychomycosis
-Dermatophyte kerion
-Dermatophyte pseudomycetoma
How can you positively identify a fungal agent (genus and species)?
-Most reliable test fore identification = Fungal culture
-Identify the organism through morphologic and microscopic characteristics
-DTM (dermatophyte test medium)
-Dermatophytes utilized the protein in the media first, leading to alkaline metabolites that cause the media to turn red w/in 10-14 days
-Saprophytes utilized carbohydrate first creating acidic metabolites
Why is it important to make a definitive diagnosis for a dermatophyte infection?
is important to make a definitive diagnosis in order to properly clear up the problem and prevent re-infection
What recommendations would you make for a cattery w/ dermatomycosis in each litter of kittens (M canis)?
-Cessation of breeding program
-Identification and isolation of positive animals
-Topical and systemic therapy for positive animals
-Topical therapy for contact cats
-Strict environmental control
-Treat all cats until cats are culture negative 3 times
-Toothbrush cultures to screen healthy appearing cats for carrier status
What skin layer do dermatophytes grow in?
-Keratogenous zone of keratinized tissue (Adamson’s fringe)
-Hair, nail, stratum corneum of skin
-Don’t affect the hair bulb
Describe the lesions seen with Cryptococcus.
-Cutaneous lesions including nodules, ulcers and draining tracts
-Nasal discharge and sneezing
-Ocular involvement = blindness
-Neural involvement = seizures, ataxia, paresis
What are the risk factors associated with cryptococcus?
More common in cats
Found in pigeon shit
How is cryptococcus diagnosed?
-Cytology
-Biopsy
-Serology
What are the treatment options for Cryptococcus?
-Itraconazole
-Fluconazole
-Flyctosine
What are the clinical signs of Malassezia dermatitis in a dog?
-Very pruritic
GENERALIZED:
-Erythematous, greasy, scaly, crusty, malodorous, lichenification, alopecia, hyperpigmentation
LOCALIZED:
-Otitis, lips, muzzle, interdigital spaces, ventral neck, medial thigh, groin, axilla, paronychia, intertriginous regions
-40% have concurrent bacterial pyoderma
What are the clinical signs of Malassezia dermatitis in a cat?
-Not as common as dog
GENERALIZED:
-Erythematous, scaly to waxy dermatitis
LOCALIZED:
-Otitis, chin acne, paronychia (base of nail)
How do you diagnose Malassezia?
-Cytologic exam:
-Impression smear, swab, skin scraping, acetate prep
-Look for round to oval budding yeast “peanut shaped”
-Skin biopsy w/ histopath
-Culture
-Look for a response to anti-yeast therapy
Discuss Treatment for Malassezia.
-Identify and address the underlying cause:
-w/ out correction of the predisposing disease or factors, the disease is likely to reoccur
-Treat concurrent Staph pyoderma
Topical therapy:
-Anti-fungal creams or lotions for localized areas
-Anti-fungal shampoos for generalized areas
-Dips are not necessary but can be effective
Systemic therapy:
-Ketoconazole or Itraconazole
-**Griseofulvin is NOT effective**
-Treat 7-14 days past clinical cure
What are the predisposing factors for Malassezia?
-Increased humidity
-Immune dysfunction
-Genetic (Basset’s or WHWT)
-Hypersensitivity
-Keratinization disorders
-Endocrine or metabolic disorders
Which of the following are zoonotic? Blastomycosis, Histoplasmosis, Coccidiomycosis, Crytococcus neoformans.
Cryptococcus neoformans
What are some clinical signs associated with Blastomycosis?
-Nodular skin lesions
-Draining tracts
-Absscesses
-Often have concurrent respiratory disease
What are some clinical signs associated with Histoplasmosis?
-GIT and respiratory disease
-Granuloma and draining tract skin lesions
What are some clinical signs of Coccidomycosis?
Dog:
-Young, male dogs
-Coughing, dyspnea, fever, anorexia, wgt. Loss, lameness, ocular disesase
-Papules, nodules, abscesses, draining tract, ulcers
-Skin infections often occur over infected bone
Cat:
-RARE
-Anorexia, wgt. Loss, cough, dyspnea, lameness, ocular disease, skin lesions
What are some clinical signs of Cryptococcus neoformans infection?
-Cutaneous lesions include nodules, ulcers, draining tracts
-Nasal discharge
-Ocular involvement = blindness
-Neural involvement = seizures, ataxia, paresis
What are some physical characteristics of Blasto?
-Broad based budding
-Endemic in Mississippi and Ohio river valley
-Ingested or inhaled from: soil, bird or bat shit
What are some physical characteristics of Histo?
-Tiny organism
-Endemic in Eastern US
What are some physical characteristics of Coccidio?
-Largest organism w/ spherules that contain endospores
-Found in sandy, alkaline soil, high temperature, low rainfall, low elevation
-Endemic in SW US, South and Central America
What are some physical characteristics of Cryptococcus neoformans?
-Large organism
-Relatively common in cats
-Found in pigeon shit
-Thick candy shell
Which breed of dog is predisposed to developing cutaneous infections w/ pythium?
GSD
What is the usual source of pythium infection?
Swamps or ponds in southern US
How is pythium treated?
Aggressive surgery (amputation)
-Itraconazole + Terbenafine
-Treat for 2 months and recheck titers at LSU
What is the prognosis for pythium?
Poor (“swamp cancer” is invasive and often fatal)
What is an asymptomatic carrier?
animal that is carrying and possibly shedding a disease without showing any clinical signs
How are asymptomatic carriers identified?
Screening tests
How are Malassezia infections transmitted?
Malassezia is part of the normal flora of ears and skin. It is an opportunistic pathogen that proliferates under conditions of increased moisture (i.e. greasy, scaly, inflamed skin)
Does antibiotic therapy predispose animals to yeast or fungal infections of skin?
Yes
What is the most common subcutaneous fungal infection of cats and dogs?
Microsporum canis
What are the risk factors for infection with Blasto?
-Found in the Mississippi and Ohio River valley
-Found in nitrogen rich soil and bat and bird shit