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9 Cards in this Set

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Host factors that contribute to resistance against fungal infections
pH, fatty acid content of skin, epithelial turnover and normal bacterial flora
Coccidioides immitis
Fungi that can cause coccidioides meningitis

result of inhaling soil or dust

dimorphic physiology (yeast in humans, mold in nature)

Most infections are subcliical

in CA known as valley fever. 40% develop pneumonia

Diagnosis by history, positive skin test, serum antibody to C. immitis, positive culture from an extraneural site and exclusion of other etiologies for chronic meningitis
Cryptococcus neoformans
Fungi that causes cryptococcosis

It looks like a yeast expresses a polysaccharide capsule during human infection that inhibits phagocytosis.

looks like yeast-not dimorphic

Acquired through inhalation of avian droppings, especially from pigeons. May survive up to two years in dust.
Modes of parasitic Entry:
Ingestion

Direct penetration by arthropod bite

Transplacental penetration

Organism directed penetration
Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM)
Caused by a protozoan, Naegleria fowleri, an amoeboflagellate found in fresh water, especially stagnant water

A disease of healthy young people acquired by swimming

Pathogenesis-
Organism enters through nares, through nasal mucosa covering cribiform plate

Migrates to CNS and multiplies with extensive damage to the meninges, and olfactory bulbs, and extends in large numbers via the perivascular spaces into the brain

Causes acute inflammatory response in the meninges, with PMN in large numbers, and elevated protein and low to normal glucose in the CSF
Cysticercosis
Caused by infection with eggs of Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm. However cysticercosis is initiated by infection of a human by another infected human.
Endemic in: Mexico, South America, China, India
Eggs develops, the larva penetrates the gut wall and can go almost anywhere in the body and develop into cysticerci, especially in muscle.
Most common clinical problem is neurocysticercosis, with cysticerci found within the cerebrum, in the subarachnoid space, or in the ventricles
Infection with cystercercus
Cysticercus in mm of pig human ingests it raw in pork. Infection occurs. Larva hatch in small intestine and grow to become adults. Head of adult attaches to wall of small intestine and GRAVID PROGLOTTID is released. GRAVID PROGLOTTID is an egg producing organ. We are now at the diagnostic stage where eggs or GRAVID PROGLOTTID can be found in feces or environment.
Formation of Cistercercosis
Embronated egg or proglottid is ingested hatches and penetrates the intestinal wall and enter into the bloodstream. Larva make it to mm, CT, brain, lungs, eyes, cacify to form a Cistercercosis
Diagnosis of Cistercercosis
look for space occupying lesions, Serology
Cysticerci remain viable 3-5 years and then degenerates
Need to screen for contacts of cases who are carriers and treat so others are not infected (carrier have eggs present in their feces)