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117 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Circadian synchronization
When the person's sleep and wake patterns coincide with their biologic clock
Circadian regularity begins when?
Third week of life
Infants are awake most often when?
Early morning and late afternoon
Infants enter the 24 hour cycle in which they sleep mostly at night when?
4 months
Infants sleep wake patterns are almost like those of adults when?
6 months
Sleep cycle is controlled by centers located where?
Lower part of brain
Most sleep at night is REM/NREM?
What symptoms occur during NREM?
Decrease in BP, HR, CO; Peripheral vasodilitation, Skeletal muscles relax; ICP decreases
Stage 1 NREM
Very light sleep
Eyes roll from side to side
Decrease HR, RR
Can be readily awakened
Stage 1 REM
Very close to waking
Some eye movement
Stage 2 NREM
Light sleep
Eyes are still
Decrease in temp
Which stage of the sleep cycle only lasts 10-15 mins but constitutes 40-45% of sleep?
Stage 2 NREM
Stage 3 NREM
Not disturbed by sensory stimuli
Skeletal muscles very relaxed
Reflexes are diminished
In which stage do we receive the most restorative sleep?
Stage 4 NREM
How often does REM occur?
Every 90 minutes
When does most dreaming occur?
What are symptoms of REM sleep?
Gastric secretions increase
HR & RR irregular
Muscle tone decreases
How does depression affect sleep?
Shorter REM stages
What is the deepest level of sleep?
Stage 4 REM
Stage 5 REM
Large voluntary muscles of the body are paralyzed
In which stage is there an increase in HR & RR?
Stage 5 REM
Complete sleep cycle usually lasts?
1.5 hours
Infants sleep as long as..
22 hours per day
What wakes up an infant?
Blood sugar drops
Infants awaken how often?
3-4 hours
How much sleep does a toddler need?
10-12 hours
How much sleep do school age children need?
8-12 hours
How much sleep do young adults need?
7-8 hours
In a person with anxiety, what keeps them awake?
Increase in epinephrine
Alcohol has what affect on sleep?
Disrupts REM sleep
Elevated body temperatures can cause reductions in what stages of sleep?
Stage 3 & 4 NREM and REM
How do hypnotics affect sleep?
Interfere with Stage 3 & 4 NREM
How do beta blockers affect sleep?
Cause insomnia and nightmares
How do narcotics affect sleep?
Suppress REM, cause frequent awakenings, cause drowsiness
How do tranquilizers affect sleep?
Interfere with REM
Grinding teeth
What is the most common sleep disorder?
Three types insomnia
What data is collected during sleep assessment?
Sleep history
sleep diary
sleep aids
rested on awakening
Ineffective coping can be a nursing diagnosis for what?
What is found in cheese & milk to induce sleep?
3 components of sensory experience
Reception begins when?
Stimulation of receptor, nerve impulse travels along pathways to spind cord or brain
Perceptions takes place when?
When person becomes aware of stimuli and receives the information
What does the reticular activating system do?
Mediates all sensory stimuli to the cerebral cortex
Sensory defecit
Deficit in the normal function of sensory reception and perception
Blind, deaf, cataracts
Sensory deprivation
Inadequate quality or quantity of stimulation
Reduced sensory input, elemination of order or meaning from input, restriction of environment that produces monotony or boredom
Sensory overload
Person receives multiple sensory stimuli and can not perceptually disregard or selectively ignore some stimuli
Cultural care deprivation
Failure to recognize and meet the client's cultural needs due to environmental factors
African americans are prone to?
Caucasians are prone to?
Hearing impairment
Mexican Americans are prone to?
Eskimos are prone to?
Narrow angle glaucoma
Native americans are prone to?
Otitis media
Jewish americans more prone to?
Persons at risk for peripheral nerve injury?
Repetitive motions - computer programmer, manicurist, assembly line workers
Nursing care delivery models
Functional nursing, team nursing, total patient care, primary nursing, case management
Decentralized decision making
Requires workers to be empowered to accept greater responsiblity for the quality of client care provided
Decentralized decision making focuses on what?
Quality of nursing care is defined under three sets of framework
Professional standards
Care guidelines
Passive health promotion activities
Individuals gain from the activities of others without acting themselves
Active health promotion activities
Individuals are motivated to adopt specific health programs
Primary care
Health promotion and specific protection
Secondary care
Early diagnosis and prompt treatment, disability limitations
Tertiary level
Restoration and rehabilitation
What is the first step in health promotion, wellness education, and illness prevention activities?
Identifying risk factors
Injecting an irritant solution into the body, generally in the region of tendons or ligaments
Ambulatory surgery AKA
Outpatient surgery
Short stay surgery
Same day surgery
Reduce secretions
Treatment for malignant hyperthermia
Symptoms of anaphylaxis
Hypotension, tachycardia, bronchospasm, pulmonary edema
General anesthesia
Unconscious state characterized by amnesia, analgesia, muscle relaxation
Regional anesthesia
Loss of sensation in a specific area or region of the body - injected
Monitored anesthesia care
Local anesthesia & IV drugs to provide sedation & systemic analgesia
Conscious sedation/analgesia
Tolerate unpleasant procedures while maintaining adequate cardio respiratory function & the ability to respond purposefully to verbal command
Local anesthesia
For minor procedures
Who is responsible for setting up OR room?
Circulating nurse and surgical tech
Fast tracking
Pt may be discharged as soon as they meet the requirements to leave the hospital
In the initial assesment after surgery, always begin with..
Airway obstruction may be due to..
Atelectasis is caused by
Retained secretions or decreased respiratory excursion
Symptoms of bronchospasm
Wheezing, dyspnea, accessory muscle, hypoxemia, tachypnea
Bronchospasm are frequent with..
COPD, asthma
Symptoms of pulmonary embolism
Acute tachypnea, dyspnea, hypotension, bloody sputum, chest pain, wheezing, anxiety, sweating, hypoxemia
Symptoms of pneumonia
SOB, crackles, cough, temperature, tachycardia, decreased 02 sat
Most common cause of hypotension
Loss of blood
Temp less than 96.8
Passive rewarming
Active rewarming
Warm blankets
Paralytic ileus
No passage of food and the pt will vomit if they have eaten or drank much
Sexual excitment dervied by exposure of one's genitals to a stranger
Sexual excitement derived by a nonliving object
Sexual excitement derived by touching genitals against a non-consenting person in crowded places
Sexual activity with prepubescent child
Sexual masochism
Sexual excitement derived from humiliation, restraints, spanking
Sexual sadism
Sexual excitement derived from the psychological/physical suffering of victim
Sexual excitement from watching unsuspecting strangers who are naked
Pain with intercourse
Effects of prostate cancer on sex life
Loss of erectile ability
Effects of hysterectomy on sex life
Increased sexual responsiveness
Effects of DM on sex life
Erectile dysfunction
Painful intercourse r/t yeast infection
Effects of spinal cord injury on sex life
Depends on level of injury whether ejaculation is affected
How do alpha blockers affect sex life?
Inability to ejaculate
How do amphetamines affect sex life?
Increase sex drive, delayed orgasm
How do steroids affect sex life?
Decreased sex drive, infertility
How do anticonvulsants affect sex life?
Decreased sex drive
How do antidepressants affect sex life?
Decreased orgasmic delay
How do antipsychotics affect sex life?
Decreased sex drive
How do beta blockers affect sex life?
Decreased sex drive
How do antihistamines affect sex life?
Decreased vaginal lubrication
How do diuretics affect sex life?
Decreased vaginal lubrication
How do narcotics affect sex life?
Decreased sex drive
Muscle spasm of the lower 1/3 of vagina making insertion of penis painful
P - permission
LI -limitations
SS - specific suggestions
T - therapy
B - bring up topic
E - explain sex is important
T - tell client resources will be found
T - timing
E - educate regarding side effects
R - record