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111 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
algorithm
The sequence of steps necessary to solve any problem.
assignment operator
The equal sign; it always requires the name of a memory location on its left side.
assignment statement
A statement that stores the result of any calculation performed on its right side to the named location on its left side.
binary
A numbering system that uses two values, 0s and 1s.
binary decision
A yes-or-no decision; so called because there are two possible outcomes.
camel casing
The format for naming variables in which the initial letter is lowercase, multiple-word variable names are run together, and each new word within the variable name begins with an uppercase letter.
central processing unit (CPU)
The piece of hardware that processes data.
character
A letter, number, or special symbol such as “A”, “7”, or “$”.
coding
To write the statements of a program in a programming language.
command prompt
The location on your computer screen at which you type entries to communicate with the computer’s operating system using text.
compiler
Software that translates a high-level language into machine language and tells you if you have used a programming language incorrectly. Similar to an interpreter. However, a compiler translates all the statements in a program prior to executing them.
connector symbol
A flowchart symbol used when limited page size forces you to continue the flowchart elsewhere on the same page or on another page.
compiler
Software that translates a high-level language into machine language and tells you if you have used a programming language incorrectly. Similar to an interpreter. However, a compiler translates all the statements in a program prior to executing them.
conversion
The entire set of actions an organization must take to switch over to using a new program or set of programs.
connector symbol
A flowchart symbol used when limited page size forces you to continue the flowchart elsewhere on the same page or on another page.
data
All the text, numbers, and other information that are processed by a computer.
conversion
The entire set of actions an organization must take to switch over to using a new program or set of programs.
data hierarchy
Represents the relationship of databases, files, records, fields, and characters.
data
All the text, numbers, and other information that are processed by a computer.
data type
The characteristic of a variable that describes the kind of values the variable can hold, the amount of memory it occupies, and the types of operations that can be performed with it.
data hierarchy
Represents the relationship of databases, files, records, fields, and characters.
database
A logical container that holds a group of files, often called tables, that together serve the information needs of an organization.
data type
The characteristic of a variable that describes the kind of values the variable can hold, the amount of memory it occupies, and the types of operations that can be performed with it.
decision symbol
A symbol that represents a decision in a flowchart, and is shaped like a diamond.
database
A logical container that holds a group of files, often called tables, that together serve the information needs of an organization.
declaration
A statement that names a variable and tells the computer which type of data to expect.
decision symbol
A symbol that represents a decision in a flowchart, and is shaped like a diamond.
declaring variables
The process of naming program variables and assigning a type to them.
declaration
A statement that names a variable and tells the computer which type of data to expect.
declaring variables
The process of naming program variables and assigning a type to them.
desk-checking
The process of walking through a program solution on paper.
dummy value
A preselected value that stops the execution of a program.
eof
An end-of-data file marker, short for “end of file.”
executing
To have a computer use a written and compiled program. Also called running.
external storage
Persistent, relatively permanent storage outside the main memory of the machine, on a device such as a floppy disk, hard disk, or flash media.
field
A single data item, such as lastName, streetAddress, or annualSalary.
flat file
A data file that can only be written or read sequentially and is not part of a relational database.
floating-point value
A fractional, numeric value that contains a decimal point.
flowchart
A type of pictorial representation of the logical steps it takes to solve a problem.
flowline
An arrow that connects the steps in a flowchart.
graphical user interface (GUI)
A program interface that uses screens to display program output and allows users to interact with a program in a graphical environment.
hardware
The equipment of a computer system.
high-level programming language
A programming language that is English-like, as opposed to a low-level programming language.
identifier
A variable name.
infinite loop
A repeating flow of logic without an end.
input device
Hardware such as keyboards and mice; through these devices, data items enter the computer system. Data can also enter a system from storage devices such as magnetic disks and CDs
input symbol
A symbol that indicates input operations and is represented as parallelograms in flowcharts.
integer value
A whole-number, numeric value.
internal storage
Temporary storage within the computer; also called memory, main memory, primary memory, or random access memory (RAM).
interpreter
Software that translates a high-level language into machine language and tells you if you have used a programming language incorrectly. Similar to a compiler. However, an interpreter translates one statement at a time, executing each statement as soon as it is translated.
IPO chart
A program development tool that delineates input, processing, and output tasks.
literal numeric constant
A specific numeric value. Also called a numeric constant.
literal string constant
A text constant. In most modern languages, a literal string is enclosed within quotation marks.
logic
Instructions given to the computer in a specific sequence, without leaving any instructions out or adding extraneous instructions.
logical error
An error that occurs when incorrect instructions are performed, or when instructions are performed in the wrong order. Contrast with syntax error.
low-level language
A programming language not far removed from machine language, as opposed to a high-level programming language.
machine language
A computer’s on/off circuitry language; the low-level language made up of 1s and 0s that the computer understands.
maintenance
All the improvements and corrections made to a program after it is in production.
making a decision
To test a value resulting in a true or false outcome.
making declarations
The process of naming program variables and assigning a type to them.
mnemonic
A memory device; variable identifiers act as mnemonics for hard-to-remember memory addresses.
named constant
A named memory location, similar to a variable, except its value never can change during the execution of a program. Conventionally, constants are named using all capital letters.
numeric constant
A variable that holds numeric values.
object-oriented programming
A programming technique that focuses on objects, or “things,” and describes their features, or attributes, and their behaviors. Contrast with procedural programming.
output device
A computer device such as a printer or monitor that lets people view, interpret, and work with information processed by the computer.
output symbol
A symbol that indicates output operations, and is represented as a parallelogram in flowcharts.
Pascal casing
The format for naming variables in which the initial letter is uppercase, multiple-word variable names are run together, and each new word within the variable name begins with an uppercase letter.
procedural programming
A programming technique that focuses on the procedures or modules that programmers create. Contrast with object-oriented programming.
processing
To organize data items, check them for accuracy, or perform mathematical operations on them.
processing symbol
A symbol that contains program processes, such as arithmetic statements, and is represented as a rectangle in flowcharts.
programming language
A language such as Visual Basic, C#, C++, Java, or COBOL, used to write programs.
prompt
A message that is displayed on a monitor, asking the user for a response.
pseudocode
An English-like representation of the logical steps it takes to solve a problem.
query
A question that pulls related data items together from a database in a format that enhances efficient management decision making.
rules of precedence
Rules that dictate the order the operations in the same statement are carried out.
running
To have a computer use a written and compiled program. Also called executing.
saving
To store a program on some nonvolatile medium.
scripting language
A language such as Python, Lua, Perl, or PHP used to write programs that are typed directly from a keyboard and are stored as text rather than as binary executable files. Also called scripting programming languages or script languages.
semantic error
An error that occurs when a correct word is used in an incorrect context.
sentinel value
A value that represents an entry or exit point.
software
The programs used by a computer.
storage device
A hardware apparatus that holds information for later retrieval.
string variable
A variable that holds character or text values.
syntax
The rules of a language.
syntax error
An error in language or grammar. Contrast with logical error.
terminal symbol
A symbol used at each end of a flowchart. Its shape is a lozenge. Also called a start/stop symbol.
software
The programs used by a computer.
text constant
A constant enclosed within quotation marks. A literal string.
storage device
A hardware apparatus that holds information for later retrieval.
text variable
A variable that holds character values. A string variable.
string variable
A variable that holds character or text values.
TOE chart
A program development tool that lists tasks, objects, and events.
syntax
The rules of a language.
variable
A named memory location of a specific data type, whose contents can vary or differ over time.
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