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146 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
____ joint where spheroidal surface of one bone moves withing a socket of another and articulating surfaces much longer in one direction than in right angle surface. Give example
condylar- metacarpophalngeal (knuckle)
IN ___ muscles fibers are parallel to long axis of muscle
strap
___ muscles produce greater foce
pennate
___ muscle fibers are oblique to long axis of muscle
pennate
___ (+ sensory fibers)are concerned with feflexes that help maintain the necessary degree of contraction within a muscle
propioceptors
____ is more fibrous that sutures (ex interosseous membrane between ulna/ radius)
syndesmoses
___ is a joint between a tooth and its socket
gomphoses
Name three types of fibrous joints>
sutures, syndesmoses, gomphoses
____ are united by hyaline cartilage and are mainly temporary
synchondroses
A ___ cartilaginous joint is united by fibrocartilage
symphyses
In the PNS ___ cells frovide myelin sheaths for axon
Schwann cells
___ are vessels that supply blood to nerves
Vasa nervorus
The PNS consists of ___ pairs of cranial nerves and __ pairs of spinal nerves
12 pair- cranial
31 pair- spinal
The ___ nervous system provides innervation to all parts of the body except the viscera (internal organs)
somatic
From ___ down nerves emerge inferior to their respective vertberae
T1
____ is the term to describe the spinal cord after LV1/LV2 when it becomes flatter
cauda equina
___ is the tapered terminal part of the spinal cord
conus medullaris
___ is the nonnvervous strand of tissue distal to the conus medullaris
internal filum terminale
The __ horns of the spinal cord contain sensory neurons which receive info from spinal nerves
dorsal
From ___ - L2 there is a lateral horn that contains ANS motor neurons
T1
list the CT sheath covering a nerve fiber, bundle of fibers, and entire nerve
nerve fiber- endoneurium
bundle fibers- perineurium
entire nerve- epineurium
what are the two enlargements on the spinal cord
cervical and lumbrosacral
Where does the dural sac surronding the spinal cord end
SV 2
In the ___ nervous system it takes two motor neurons to convey impulse from CNS to organ
autonomic
The ___ rami supplies innervation to deep muscles of skin of back
dorsal
___ is the a phenomenon where PT reports pain from a certain area when in fact pain is being produced in another area but enters through a partical dermatome entry point
referred pain
The pia and arachnoid are connected by the ____
arachnoid trabeculae
What is the leptomeninges
name for the pia and arachnoid mater
The ___ ligament seperates the dorsal and ventral nerve roots
denticulate
Where is the CSF found
subarachnoid space
the ___ space is a potential space, nothing should be in it, that lies betwen dura and arachnoid
subdural
The epidural space contains what 2 things
fat and int. vertebral venous plexus
Where is the site of lumbar puncture
between spines L3/L4
The ____ lies between L2 and S2 vertebrae
lumbar cistern
How many pulmonary veins are there
4
What are the three coats of arteries/ veins
tunica intima, tunica media, tunica adventitia
The smooth muscle of blood vessel is located in the ____
tunica media
The ____ is the structure that differes between artery and vein
tunica media
___ are the most important in regulating peripheral blood flow
arterioles
A ___ is a vessel that bypasses a capillary bed
arteriovenous anastomes
_____ is a system where contraction of buscles causes blood in veins to travel back to heart
musculovenous pump
____ describes where arterial blood can still reach a target area by bypassing a blockage
collateral circulation
What are the two exceptional blood vessels that have parasympathetic innervation
coronary aa, arteries supplying erectile tissue of external genitalia
Where are 2 common location to find sory nerve endings that are sensitive to changes in BP
Large vessels near heart and beginning of ICA
___ is a mineral that deposits on cholesterol to form a plaque
Ca
___ is the name for a clot that results from atherosclerosis
thrombus
What are the 2 layers of lipid membrane
phospholipids, glycolipids
name some functions of integral membrane proteins
pumps, channels , receptors, acin linkers, enzymes, structural proteins
what dephosphorylates protein
phosphatases
what is kept in high concentration in the ER
Ca
where are proteins terminally glycosylated
Golgi
what is the protein modification that means take me to the lysosome
mannose 6-phosphate
what organelle is involved in oxidation and mental retardation
peroxisome
___ is the name for programed cell death
apoptosis
If a protein is tagged with ubiquitin where is it going
proteosome
what are the two major functions of microtubules
mechanical reinforcing for cell and tracks for cellular movement
The microtubules are made out of what dimeric molecule
tubulin
____ are short cylinders of microtubules at right angles to one another
centrioles
What are functions of actin (microfilaments)
provide cell membrane support,
support finger like projections in cell, are track for ATP motor proteins
all intermediate filaments are related to the ___ molecule
keratin
Constitutive heterochromatin remains transcriptionally _____
inactive
___ is the functional unit of the euchromatin
nucleosome
what are the 4 stages of cell cycle
Interfase: G1,S (DNA replication),G2,

M(mitosis),
In apoptosis a series of enzymes known as ___ are activated
caspases
How many families of enzymes control apoptosis
3
what are the 4 major tissue types of histology
epithelial, connective, muscle, nerve
in a H&E the _____ material is going to be purple and ____ material is going to be pink red.
acidic- purple
basic pink/ red
The PAS stain is good for staining ______ and what is color
sugars/ glycoproteins- pink
describe immunochemistry
use of flourescent antibody to mark antigen
___ is a type of microscopy that uses lasers and mirrors to achieve a 3-D view of tissue
confocal
T or F you can use flourescence can be used to locate Ca
True
____ is a technique where you inject radioactive molecules into tissue and then see how it is taken up
autoradiography
__ is a technique if you know a protein's gene sequence you can create radioisotope probe to the mRNA
In-situ hybridization
____ is a technique where a laser is used to trace outline of molecule
Atomic force microscopy
what germ layer is the ectoderm derived from
all three
____ is the transformation of one type of epithelium into another
metaplasia
what are the two domains of a polarized cell
apical domain, and basolateral domain
what two things create the basement membrane
The epithelia and supporting tissue
___ is an intracellular region where actin filaments attach network to wall
zonula adherens
___ are regions where the cell is "nailed" together with intermediate filaments
desmosomes,
___ is the control of secretion of exocrine gland
myoepithelial
____ is a type of secretion where cell disintegrates and is secreted with its contens
holocrine
The cilia is made from ___
microtubles
___ are long microvilli
sterocilia
The micro villi are composed of ____
microtubles (actin)
T or F connective tissue has no blood vessels in it
false
What type of connective tissue would cantain a stroma that is highly cellular
reticular connective tissue (lymph node)
what makes up connective tissue
cells + extracellular matrix
out of connective tissue what is one of the only cells that are transient
white blood cells
what is the significance of ghrelin and peptide YY
They are hormones that are involved in short-term weight control
What is the significance of leptin
Hormone thought to have long term weight control by reducing apetite
how are lipids stored in adipose tissue
lipids just float around in cytosol
Where do mast cells differentiatie and develop
differentiat- bone marrow
develop- connective tissue
What type of cell secretes heparin, histamine, ECF, interleukins, growth factor
mast cells
T or F the secretion of molecules from mast cell is constitutive?
False- controlled
proteins are least soulable at which point
isoelectric
enzymes cleave on the C or N side of an aa
C side
what does trypsin cleave after
Arg, Lys
___ discovered insulin had a definitive primary structure
sanger
what does cyanobromine cleave after
methionine
Name a protein seperation technique that can only be used to purify one protein (example glucose binding protein)
Affinity chromatography
For electrophores proteins are made ____ by adding SDS page and travel to __ pole
proteins negative and travel to the + pole
____ is the name of the process where you can determine the exact sequence of aa
Edman degredation
Fmoc and DCCD are used in ____
solid phase synthesis of peptide
the ___ bond angle in aa tells teh position of the two nitrogen atoms relative to each other
Psi
describe a 3.6 subscript 13 helix
3.6 aa's per turn and 13 atoms
which R side chains are usu found at the N and c termini of aa chain
N end- Asn (asparagine)
C end- His
what type of Beta sheets from on outside of globular protein
antiparallel
Describe the types of repeats present in alpha coiled coil and beta sheets
alpha coiled coil- Leu every 7th aa.
Beta- Gly and Ala every third
Gly- Ala- ser- Gly- Ala-Ser
what two molecules of chymotrpsin are involved in prot/ depot His
Ser and Sp
the collapsed barrel domain that is made of B-barrel structures is also know as the ___
immunoglobulin fold
what type of repeat is collagen characterised by
Gly 3 repeat
What two fibrous proteins are characterized by heptat repeat
keratin and myosin
are coiled coils left or right handed
Left
describe structure of collagen
3 helix:
three left handed alpha chains coiled in a right-handed major helix
what aa absorb UV light and give their exact nm they absorb
Trp- 280
Tyr- lettle less 280
Phe-250
are the psi and phi angles of beta sheets smaller in parallel or antiparallel sheets
parallel
Do parallel or antiparallel beta sheets have hydrophobic on one side and hydrophilic on another
antiparallel
For dimers like prealbumin and alcohol dehyrodrogenase what is used to link dimers
Beta pleated sheets
what subunit comprises a microtubule quartenary structure
Tubulin dimers-
what type of Fe is present in functioning Hb
ferrous
What aa in the Hb heme pocket prevents CO and O2 from bidning tightly in a straight conformation
His
To what aa is the heme group covalently liked
the imidazole of His
What helicies in Hb are very important in the hydrophonic pocket
E and F
T or F when one Heme group is bound to O2 it makes it easier for the other Heme groups to bind O2
True
what does the Bohr effect describe
The competative binding of H+ and O2 for Heme group
___ is the molecule that binds to cavity of Hb and promotes the deoxy state
2,3 BPG (bisphosphoglycerate)
what is the composition of fetal Hb
2alpha 2 gamma
What mutation causes sickle cell
Val substitution
describe where [Na] high and [K] high
[Na] high extracellular
[Ka] intracellular
what necessary 2 structures are bound to myosin head
2 light chains
what part of sarcomere decreases during contraction
H zone
when does myosin take its power stroke
when it is dephosphorylated
what does angiotensis do
contract blood vessels and raise BP
folding for fibrous proteins is usually driven by enthalpy or entropy
enthalpy deltaH
____ catalyzes teh cis-trans isomerization of X-P bonds
PPI
what type of Beta sheet structure parallel or antiparallel do non-fiber forming collagens assume
antiparallel
what type of collagen comprises the basement membrane
type 4
which collagen type takes two genes to produce
Type I It has two alpha1's and one alpha 2
___ is needed to add OH group to Proline so that collagen can function properly
vitamin C
what part of collagen keeps alpha 1 and alpha2 in correct ratios
the carboxy domain
what is responsible for the cross linking in collagen
telopeptidases
how big is gap region
.6D
Does the type 1 or 5 fiber keep heterotypic fibers thin
the type 5
what type of collagen molecules are used as filters
the alternate aggregates
A ____ is a polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketone
sugar