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32 Cards in this Set

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What is Fire Control?
The name given to observation, calculations and action involved in firing a weapon.
Point of aim is affected by.
Target motion
Helicopter motion
What is ballistics and what are the 4 types?
Ballistics is the science which deals with the motion of the projectile and the conditions that affect that motion.

Explain interior ballistics and name three factors that will affect it.
The factors affecting the motion of the projectile within the barrel.
Barrel wear
Projectile weight
Propellant charge
Explain exterior ballistics
Exterior ballistics are the factors that affect the motion of the projectile as it moves along its trajectory from the muzzle to the point of impact
Define aerial ballistics
Aerial ballistics are the characteristics of weapons that are either fin-stabilized or spin-stabilized.
What are 6 characteristics that affect aerial and exterior ballistics?
Gravity Drop
Wind drift
Projectile drift
Projectile jump
Trajectory shift
Explain gravity drop.
The force of gravity is constant and increases exponentially at roughly 32 f/s² or 9.81m/s².

In 1/2 sec of flight – your round will drop 4 feet
In 1 sec of flight – it will drop 16 feet
In 2 sec of flight – it will drop 64 feet
Explain drag.
Drag is the friction between the round and the air. As the round travels, this force will slow the projectile down.
Explain wind drift
When a round encounters a crosswind, it will drift in the direction of the wind the amount of effect depends on distance to the target, and amount of wind
Explain projectile drift.
US barrels are rifled in a clockwise direction (gunner’s view). Rounds fired will spin clockwise and drift to the right.
Explain projectile jump
As the round leaves the barrel, the slip stream caused by the movement of the aircraft will cause the round to jump if firing from the left or dive if firing from the right. LLL and RRH is meant to compensate for this.
Explain trajectory shift.
Rounds fired from a moving helicopter move in the direction that the aircraft is moving.
LLL and RRH is meant to compensate for this.
Explain terminal ballistics
Terminal ballistics is what happens after the projectile impacts the target
Explain turning error.
When firing while in a turn, the force will cause the rounds to fall short and inside.
Factors that will affect your point of aim.
Bank Angle
Rate of Turn
What are the three types of fire?
Running, diving and hovering.
What is dispersion?
Dispersion is inherent in every machine gun. It is the scattering of rounds around the intended target. The amount of dispersion increases with distance. The “cone of fire” can be measured in mils. 1 mil= 1m of dispersion at a range of 1000m. Dispersion is affected by the exterior ballistics and the gun mount, aircraft vibration and crew coordination.
What is average dispersion for an aircraft gunner?
35 mils or roughly 2º of error.

Firing a 15 round burst, this translates to:

1 round in 5.7m² at 300m distance

1 round in 15m² at 500m distance

1 round in 64m² at 1000m distance
What are 3 methods of range estimation?


Tracer burnout
When using the eye method of range estimation, what are some factors that could cause inaccuracy?
Nature of the target: Targets that contrast with the background, will appear closer while targets that blend with background, will appear more distant.
-Nature of the terrain: over smooth terrain, targets seem closer than they are, rough terrain makes targets seem more distant.
-Visibility: targets in full sunlight appear closer than those in fog or shadow.
Some factors that affect firing while using NVGs.
muzzle flash : use flash suppressors
-Tracers: use dim tracers or remove every other tracer
-Focusing on the flash: look down the side of the weapon, not over the top
-Volume of fire: use only the rounds needed in short bursts
-Lasers, searchlights and flares: use for target acquisition.
-GCP 2A will make a 1/2m spot from a 1000m range
Maximum effective range is…
the range at which the gunner can accurately fire.
“What is time of flight?”
One “TOF” is the distance a round travels in one second of flight.
What is the distance traveled by a 50 cal. round and a 7.62 round in ½ and 1 TOF?
In ½ second = 373m and 1 sec= 679m

In ½ second = 371m and 1 sec= 636m
What distance is ideal for air-to-air engagement?
Engage at no more than 1 TOF where gravity drop will be 16’.

½ TOF is ideal.
What is the rule of thumb for leading aerial targets?
From the left side of the helicopter, put the target at 2 o’clock on the reticle.

From the right side of the helicopter, put the target at 7 o’clock on the reticle.
What are the 2 types of leads?
Constant- hold aim steady and shoot so that the target flies into the rounds

Sustained- hold a constant offset lead and adjust as the target moves.
What are three types of weapon emergencies?
Run-away gun


Stoppage or malfunction
The GAU 16, GAU 17 and M240 can cook-off after ______ rounds
The GAU 16 can cook off after 150-200 rounds

The GAU 17 can cook off after 15 seconds of firing.

The M-240 does not cook-off because it is fired from the open bolt position.
What are the 3 weapons controls?
Hold – fire only in self defense

Tight – Fire only at targets identified as hostile

Free – Fire at anything not identified as friendly
4 Weapons commands
Lock and load

Open fire

Cease fire

Clear your weapon