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118 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are the functions of the nervous system?
communication control
basic structure
neuron
dendrite
* short with multiple branches
* recieves impulses
* transmits its impulses to cell body
axon
* comes off cell body
* transmits impulses away from cell body to other neurons
* length- can be short or long
myelin sheath
fatty substance that insulates axon
synapse
* tiny space seperating one neuron from another
* neuro transmitter has synapse happen
sensory neurons
aka afferent eyes, ears, nose, hands travels through the central nervous system
motor neurons
aka efferent
travels: cns through body parts moves the muscles
interneurons
aka connecting
only in CNS
link sensory and motor neurons
reflexes
automatic or unconcious
reflex to stimulus
reflex arc
* short cut for nervous system
* emergency situations
* moving body before brain recieves messages
C.N.S.
central nervous system

consits of brain and spinal cord
brain
* weigh about 3 lbs
* high metobolic rate
* about 100 billion neurons
* use 20% of circulating blood
* high demand for glucose
cerebrum
* 80% of brain voulme* divided into left and right hemisphere
cerebral cortex
*outside layer
* top lining filled with neurons
gyri
* wrinkles in the brain
* creates more surface area
corpus callosum
connects right and left hemisphere
frontal lobes
motor, conceptualization, writing, speech, judgement, communication and body movement
parietal lobe
touch
temperatures
spacial ability
temporal lobe
hearing
auditory interpretation
smell
occipital
vision
thalamus
* relay station between cutaneous recepters and cerbal cortex
* all sences(except smell) interprited here
limbic
* maintains a persons awareness
* long term memory
hypothalamus
* below thalamus
* regulates visceral activites
* regulates hormones from diff parts of the body
body temperature
water balance
appitie
sleep and emotions
\
cerebellum
* muscle coordination
* posture
* balance
* equilibrum
brainstem
* includes midbrain, pons, medulla

* connects 2 hemispheres with the spinal cord
midbrain
functions as a reflex center
pons
carry messages between cerebrum and medulla
medulla
cardiac and respiratory center

vaso motor center

diolates and constricts
spinal cord
pathway with the nerves
brain to body and body to brain
meninges
layers around brain and spinal cord
dura mater
* outside fiberous layer
* lies on skull
arachnoid
middle layer
spider web like
pia mater
directly on brain and spinal cord
cerebrospinal fluid
* soaks brain and spinal cord
* carries nutrients to brain
* carries toxins away
* transmits medications
* cushions brain and spine
autonomic nervous system
* controls internal organs
* anything done automatically
sympathetic
* controls flight or fight
* things in order to be ready for a stressful situation
conjunctiva
* mucus membrane the line eye lids

* keeps eyes moist
lacrimal glands
* manufactures tears

* keeps eyes moist
sclera
white of eye
cornea
* transparent sheet

* helps bend light rays

* for focusing
auqueous humor
* fluid in anterior chamber

* helps bend light rays for focusing
iris
* WHAT GIVES THE EYE ITS COLOR

* REGULATES AMT OG LIGHT THAT COMES INTO EYE
PUPIL
BLACK PART OF EYE
LENS
* BEHIND IRIS

* FOCUSES
VITREOUS HUMOR
* FLUID IN EYE

* GIVES EYE SHAPE

* BENDS LIGHT RAYS
RETINA RODS
PICKS UP LIGHT INTENSITY
RETINA CONES
SEES COLOR
BINOCULAR VISION
USING BOTH EYES
ACCOMMODATION
* LENSE ADJUSTING

* MAKING IMAGE SHARPER AND CLEARER
HYPEROPIA
FAR SIGHTED
MYOPIA
NEAR SIGHTED
PRESBYOPIA
GRADUAL LOSS OF ACCOMMODATION DUE TO AGE
AURICLE
ALA PINNA

* OUTSIDE PART OF EAR

* GUIDES SOUNDWAVES IN
TYMPANIC MEMBRANE
AKA EARDRUM

* VIBRATE SOUNDWAVES INTO INNER EAR
CERUMEN
AKA EAR WAX

* PICKS UP FOREIGN OBJECTS

* CLEANSE EARS
OSSICLES
* 3 BONES

* MALLEUS (HAMMER)

* INCUS (ANUIL)

* STAPES (STIRRUP)
EUSTACIAN TUBE
EQUALIZING PRESSURE
COCHLEA
* TRUE ORGAN OF HEARING

* SPECIALIZED HAIR CELLS
PRESBYCUSSIS
LOSS OF EARING WITH AGE
SEMICIRCULAR CANALS
* FILLED WITH FLUID

* HELPS WITH BALANCE
VERTIGO
THE SPINS
P.E.R.R.L.A.
EYE SIGNS
P=PUPILS
E=EQUAL
R=RAND
R=REACT
L=LIGHT
A=ACCOMMODATION
ANGIOGRAM
X-RAY OF BLOOD VESSELS
ARTERIOGRAM
X-RAY OF ARTERY
ARTERIOGRAM
X-RAY OF ARTERY
E.E.G.
* ELECTROENCEPHLOGRAM

* TRACE ELECTROACTIVITY IN BRAIN

* DETECT TUMORS, DEATH, EPILEPSY
HERNIATION OF THE BRAIN
TRAUMA TO HEAD CAUSING SWELLING
BURR
CUTTING HOLE IN HEAD TO RELIEVE PRESSURE
CONTUSION
* BRUISED BRAIN

* SOMETIMES FINE FRACTURES TO SKULL
SUBDURAL HEMATOMA
* BLOOD BLISTER UNDER DURA MATER

* DAMAGE TO BLOOD VESSELS
ABSOLUTE REFACTORY
* TIME AFTER IMPULSE TRANSMITTED

* ANOTHER IMPULSE CANNOT PASS
ACOUSTIC
SOUND OR SENSE OF HEARING
ACOUSTIC NERVE
2 PARTS
1. VESTIBULAR AND COCHLEAR

2. PONS AND MEDULLA

* SENSE OF HEARING AND EQUILIBRIUM
ADAPTATION
* ABILITY OF ORGANISM TO ADJUST TO CHANGE OF ENVIORMENT

* IE EYE ADJUSTMENT
AFTER IMAGE
IMAGE IN WHICH PERSISTS SUBJECTIVELY AFTER THE CESSATION OF A STIMULUS
ASTEREOGNOSIS
INABILITY TO RECOGNIZE OBJECTS OR FORMS BY TOUCH
ASTIGMATISM
* SEVERAL MERIDIANS OF EYEBALL IS DIFFERENT

* DUE TO CHANGE IN CURUATURE IN CORNEA AND THE LENS
CERVICAL
REGION OF THE NECK
CERVICAL VERTEBRAE
FIRST SEVEN BONES OF SPINAL CLOUMN
NEURONS
CELLS THAT MAKE UP NERVOUS TISSUE
PERIPHERAL
* FURTHER FROM CENTER

* OUTWARD PART OF SURFACE
RETINA
* LIGHT SENSITIVITY STRUCTURE

* LIGHT RAYS COME INTO FOCUS
SOMATIC
PRETAINING TO THE BODY
THRESHOLD
POINT WHERE PSYCHOLOGICAL OR PHYSICOLOGICAL EFFECTS BEGIN TO PRODUCE
THORACIC
PERTAINING TO CHEST OR THORAX
VISERAL
INSIDE ORGANS
IMPULSES
* CONTROLLED BY Na+, K+

* CAN ONLY GO 1 WAY
NEUROTRANSMITTERS
* ACETYLCHOLINE

* DOPAMINE

* SEROTONIN

* EPINEPHERINE
BABINSKI
STROKE OUTERSIDE OF SOLE FROM HEEL FORWARD

SENSATION?
MORO
STRATLE INFANT BY JARING CRIB OR MAKING LOUD NOISE
BRUDZINSKI SIGN
LIE ON BACK BRING HEAD TO CHEST

IS THERE ANY PAIN
KERNIGS SIGN
LIE ON BACK
BRING ONE LEG UP TO 90 DEGREE ANGLE

IS THERE ANY PAIN
TEGRETOL
ANTI-CONVOLSIVE

FOR MANIA
DILANTIN
AKA PHENYTOIN

ANTI-CONVOLSIVE
GABAPENTIN
AKA NEURONTIN

PERIPHERAL NERUOPATHY

NEUROPATHY
DEPAKOTE
AKA VALPROIC ACID

MOODSTABILIZER

ANTI-CONVOLSIVE
VALIUM
AKA DIAZEPAM

SEZIURES GIVEN iv
MOTHYLPHENIDATE
AKA
METHYLPHENIDATE
AKA RHYDALIN

STIMULATE THE MIND

FOR STROKE VICTIMS
PILOCARPINE
AKA OCUSERTPILO

GLYCOMA MED
SINEMET
AKA LEVODOPA

PARKINSENS MED
BENZTROPINE
AKA COGENTIN

ANTI CHOLINERGIC

PARKINSONS MED

EPS MEDICATION
AMANTADINE
ANTIVIRIAL MED FOR ENCEPHALITIS
E.P.S.
EXTRA PERAMITAL SYMPTOMS
TO TREAT SYMPTOMS OF NEUROLOGICAL MEDS
DAMAGE TO FRONT OF HEAD
CHANGE IN PERSONALITY

CHANGE IN EYE MOVEMENT
DAMAGE TO TEMPORAL PART OF THE HEAD
CHANGE IN AUDITORY

APHAGIA

MEANING AND UNCERSTAND
DAMAGE TO AUXCIPITAL
CHANGE IN SIGHT

CAN BE BLIND OR DULLNESS
DAMAGE TO CEREBELLUM
CHANGE IN BALANCE

WALKING

COORDINATION
DAMAGE TO MIDBRAIN
MOVEMENT DISORDERS
ENUCLEATION
REMOVAL OF EYEBALL
CONDUCTION DEAFNESS
SOUND THAT DIMINSHIES DUE TO IMPROPER TRAVELING THRU EAR
NERVE DEAFNESS
DEAFNESS DUE TO NERVE DEATH
BRAIN ABCESS
PUSS ACCUMULATED IN BRAIN DUE TO INFECTION
I.C.P.
INTER CRANIAL PRESSURE (GOOD)
I.I.C.P.
INCREASED INTER CRANIAL PRESSURE (BAD)
PARKINSONS DISEASE
BRAIN KEEPS DEGENERATING

TREATABLE NOT CURABLE
M.S.
* DESTRUCTION OF MYELIN SHEATH

* DESTRUCTION OF NERVES