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31 Cards in this Set

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A mixture is 2 or more substances chemically combined True/False
False, the substances are physically combined; compounds are 2 or more elements chemically combined
When chemical bonds are formed between molecules, is it the electrons, protons, or neutrons that are involved in the bond?
ELECTRONS
T/F There are 2 general types of reactions that occur within food molecules, composition and decomposition reactions.
TRUE-they can be enzymatic or non-enzymatic
Is the joining of many amino acids to form a polypeptide (protein) a composition or decomposition reaction?
Composition A+BèAB
Enzymes are said to be biological catalysts. What does this mean?
Enzymes are said to be biological catalysts. What does this mean?
Explain what this equation represents: E+S--ES--E+P
enzyme + substrate--enzyme-substrate complex--enzyme + product reversible reaction
There are three factors that determine whether an enzymatic reaction will produce a product (as in above equation).
They are: amount of substrate, temperature, and pH
In general terms, explain what occurs in enzymatic hydrolysis
An enzyme breaks apart food molecules into smaller pieces
T/F Enzymatic oxidation of a substance will not occur without the reduction of another substance.
TRUE-called a “coupled reaction”. Oxidation is the addition of an oxygen or the removal of a hydrogen. Reduction is the addition of hydrogen or the removal of oxygen
What is the name of the enz;ymatic reaction in which many molecular units are joined end to end?
ENZYMATIC POLYMERIZATION, a condensation reaction. An example is the creation of starch from glucose or the creation of a polypeptide from amino acids
Which type of bond is more reactive, carbon to carbon single bonds OR carbon to carbon double bonds?
DOUBLE BONDS; addition reactions cause bonds either double or triple to be broken and to have the addition of something. For example, the hydrogen in hydrogenation
In what type of reaction is water a by-product?
CONDENSATION
High heat and _____ can stimulate non-enzymatic condensation and hydrolysis?
pH ACID HYDROLYSIS
What does this definition describe: The arrangement of just a few atoms that create particular properties of molecules?
FUNCTIONAL GROUPS
Match these groups with their correct name:
a. OH
b. NH2
c. O=C-OH or COOH
d. CH3
Alcohol group
Amine group
Carboxyl group
Methyl group or acid group
Name two functions of food acids
antimicrobial agent, lowhygroscopicity=helps prevent clumping, leavening system component, dough softener, flavor=sour or sweet
Are food acids weak or strong acids?
WEAK COO-H+ donates protons
What type of ion replaces the hydrogen atom of the acid group, COOH, in organic salts?
A metal ion such as sodium, calcium, or potassium
In what reaction does an enzyme break large food molecules apart into smaller fragments, a zero order reaction or an enzymatic hydrolysis reaction?
An enzymatic hydrolysis reaction which is a decomposition reaction
What are the nine functional groups that are found in food molecules?
Alcohol, aldehyde, carboxylic acid, amino, ester, phosphate, methyl, and sulfhydryl groups
Lactic acid is formed by: A. Heat B. Agitation C.Oxidation or D.Fermentation?
D: Fermentation
Pickles are what type of food:
A. Acidified
B. Low-Acid
C. Fermented
D. Both B & C
E. A, B, & C
D-Both A & B
T/F: The browning of an apple slice when exposed to air is an example of an enzymatic reduction reaction?
FALSE-it is an example of an enzymatic oxidation reaction
T/F: The browning of an apple slice when exposed to air is an example of an enzymatic reduction reaction?
FALSE-it is an example of an enzymatic oxidation reaction
The pH scale allows us to know if something is an acid, base, or neutral. What are the value ranges for an acid base, and the neutral mark?
Acids are lower than 7, bases are higher than 7, and neutral is 7
Some foods or ingredients that must remain free flowing have acids added to them because acids exhibit low hygroscopicity. What is hygroscopicity
The low attraction for water
How many energy levels does potassium need to hold it’s 19 electrons?
3
What are three examples of mixtures that can be considered as types of food systems?
Solution, dispersion, emulsion
What kind of bonds make up the “backbones” of fats, carbs, and proteins?
COVALENT BONDS
What are three types of water found in foods and how do they differ?
a.Free water-lightly entrapped water that acts as a dispersing agent and solvent, and can be removed by pressing

b.Bound water-water in a tight, chemically bound arrangement in food that does not exhibit the typical properties of water

c.Adsorbed Water-water that associates in layers via intermolecular hydrogen bonds around hydrophilic food molecules
What is titratable acidity?
A measure of the total acidity in a sample, comprised as free hydrogen ions and as hydrogen ions still bound to undisassociated acids