Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/53

Click to flip

53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What 2 Mechanical Functions does Bone Serve?
1. Rigid skeletal framework that supports/protects
2. System of rigid levers that can be moved by force from attached muscles
4 major building blocks of bone
calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate, collagen and water
______ and ______contribute to the stiffness of bone.
Calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate (60-70% dry bone weight)
Stiffness
stress/strain in a loaded material
Compressive strength
ability to resist compression
What contributes to flexibility and tensile strength in bone
collagen
what is the effect of aging collagen in bone?
collagen is progressively lost and bone brittleness increases
What else affects bone strength?
Water content(25-30%), bone porosity
Cortical bone
compact mineralized bone with low porosity; found in the shafts of long bones
Trabecular (or cancellous) bone
less compact bone with high porosity; found in the ends of long bones and the vertebrae
How does the structure of bone affect its strength?
bone is anisotropic, it has different strength and stiffness depending on the direction of the load
When is bone strongest?
when resisting compression
When is bone weakest?
when resisting shear
Axial Skeleton
skull, vertebrae, sternum, ribs
Appendicular skeleton
bones composing the bodies appendages
Short Bones
approximately cubical; include the carpals and tarsals
flat bones
protect organs and provide surfaces for muscle attachments; include the scapulae, sternum, ribs, patellae, some bones of the skull
irregular bones
have different shapes to serve different functions; include vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx, maxilla
long bones
form the framework of the appendicular skeleton; include humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia, fibula
Articular cartilage
fond at the articulating ends of long bones, protects from wear at points of contact
How do bones grow in length?
the epiphyses or epiphyseal plates are growth centers where new bone cells are produced until the epiphysis closes during late adolescence or early adulthood
How do bones grow in circumference?
inner layer of the periosteum, a double layered membrane covering bone, builds concentric layers of new bone on top of existing ones
Osteoblasts
specialized bone that builds new bone
Osteoclasts
specialized bone that reabsorb bone tissue
When does bone mineral density peak?
25-28 for women, 30-35 for men
Wolff's Law
"The form being given, the bone elements place or displace themselves in the direction of functional forces and increase or decrease their mass to reflect the amount of the functional forces"
How does a bone respond to training?
by hypertrophying
What activities promote bone density?
Weight bearing exercise
What tends to diminish bone density?
lack of weight bearing activities, spending time in water, bed rest, leaving the earths gravitational field
osteoporosis
is a disorder involving decreased bone mass and strength
Type I: osteoporosis
(postmenopausal) osteoporosis affects about 40% of women after age 50
Type II: osteoporosis
(age-associated) osteoporosis affects most women and men after age 70
Risk factors of osteoporosis
female, white or asian, older age, small stature or frame size, family history
Female athlete Triad
Disordered eating(62% of all athletes), amenorrhea, and osteoporosis
How to treat Osteoporosis
regular weight bearing exercise is the key prevention and treatment
How to prevent osteoporosis
postmenopausal hormone replacement, vitamin D and calcium, avoid smoking, drinking caffeine or alcohol, and excessive consumption of protein
Simple vs. compound fracture
simple: bone remains in skin
Compound: one or both ends of bone protrude from skin
Synarthroses (immovable)
sutures(only found in skull),
amphiarthroses (slightly movable)
sternocostal joints, vertebral joints
diarthroses or synovial (freely movable)
knee, elbow, hip
articular cartilage
a protective layer of dense white connective tissue covering the articulating bone surfaces
articular capsule
a double layered membrane that surrounds the joint
synovial fluid
a clear slightly yellow liquid that provides lubrications inside the articular capsule
associated bursae
small capsules filled with synovial Fluid that cushion the structures they separate
ball and socket joint
hip, shoulder
condyloid joint
metacarpal - phalanx joint
gliding joint
carpals
hinge joint
elbow, knee
pivot joint
vertebrae
saddle joint
base of the thumb
tendons
connect muscles to bones
ligaments
connect bone to other bones
joint stability
ability of a joint to resist abnormal displacement of the articulating bones