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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name the types of glands...
endocrine
exocrine
endocrine glands are....
ductless, hormone secreted directly into the bloodstream
exocrine glands have....
duct present, substance secreted into duct and emptied onto the free surface
Types of hormones:
lipid soluble
water soluble
lipid soluble
able to freely fuse into the target cell...need assist to transport in bloodstream...binds to protein temporarily to make water soluble....does not like H20
water soluble
circulates freely in bloodstream, loves H20, difficult to cross into target cell membrane...requires second messenger to activate and change cell function
Pituitary gland has 2 regions.
anterior pituitary (glandular tissue)
posterior pituitary (nervous tissue)
The anterior pituitary is controlled by the....
hypothalamus releasing and inhibiting hormone, which is transported to the anterior pituitary gland by portal veins
Anterior pituitary hormones
hGH
TSH
ACTH
FSH
LH
hGH
promotes growth
TSH
promotes release of thyroid hormones
ACTH
promotes release of glucocorticoids (cortisol)
PRL
stimulates production of milk in mature mammary glands
FSH
testes - stimulates sperm production
ovaries - stimulate estrogen production and egg development
LH
testes - stimulate production of testosterone
ovaries - stimulates continued egg development adn estrogen adn progesterone production
Posterior pituitary
two hormones produced by hypothalamus, transported to the posterior pituitary adn released by posterior pituitary
Posterior pituitary hormones:
ADH
OT
ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
increase urinary retention of H20, may cause peripheral vasoconstruction in high doses causing elevated BP
OT (oxytocin)
increases strength of contraction, adn ejection of milk from mammary glands
Thyroid Gland releases....
T3
T4
CT
What is required for the production of T3/T4?
iodide
Which is the active form of thyroid hormone?
T3 is the more active
T4 is the most produced
T3/T4
increase metabolic rate, increases growth, required for correct development of fetal nervous system
CT
stimulates urinary loss of Ca
Adrenal glands are composed of two regions....
adrenal cortex
adrenal medulla
Adrenal gland hormones.
aldosterone
cortisol
androgens
NE,E
Aldosterone
increases urinary retention of Na (increase retention of H20), decreases urinary retention of K+
Cortisol
anti=inflammatory, stimulates glucose adn glycogen formation
Androgens
function is unknown
NE,E
increases and prolongs the fight or flight response, triggered by sympatheted NS
pancreas have endocrine or exocrine function?
both endocrine and exocrine
Pancreas hormones
insulin
glucagon
GH-IH
PP
Insulin
triggered by high glucose levels in blood
increases glucose uptake by cells and synthesis of proteins adn triglycerides
Glucagon
triggered by low blood glucose levels
increased breakdown of glycogen and triglycerides ( to elevate blood sugar levels)
GH-IH
slows the rate of digestion
PP
inhibits gall bladder secretion, controls production of pancreatic enzymes
kidneys secrete what 3 hormones?
calciitriol
EPO
renin
Calcitriol
active form vit D
increases absorption of Ca adn urinary retention of Ca
triggered by low Ca concentration in blood
EPO
stimulates RBC production in red bone marrow
caused by low 02 levels in kidney (normally occurs at high altitudes)
Renin
stimulates renin-angiotensin system which leads to incr BP