Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Eco: dominant plant near poles, absorb water

Instrumental: peat moss, fuel, farming, emergency and dressing/food
Eco: major components, epiphytes

Instrumental: contributors to coal deposits, food
Other Primitive Plants
Eco: important to early evolution of earth, atmospheric nitrogen

Instrumental: coal deposits, horticulture, herbal remedies
Eco: dominant habitats in North Temperate Zone, food for wildlife, photosynthesis

Instrumental: timber, resin, horticulture, jewelry, food
-Flowering Plants/Angiosperms
Eco: maintenance of climate, photosynthesis, habitats

Instrumental: medicines, fiber, lumber, perfumes, decorations, horticulture, tourism, food
Eco: breakdown, pathogens, food

Instrumental: make croplands more fertile, food, decay agents, hallucinogens, penicillin
Eco: birds use as camouflage, rock breakdown

Instrumental: sensitive air pollution indicators, absent from urban areas, emergency food
Eco: reef-farming, calcium cycling

Instrumental: pharmaceuticals, bath sponges
Corals, Jelly Fish, Sea Anemones
Eco: main architects of reefs, producers, prey, predators, provide habitat, protection

Instrumental: sting, aquarium trade
Eco: predators, prey, parasites, nutrient cycling

Instrumental: bait, aquarium trade, food, medicinal, parasites
Eco: predators, pretty, homes for hermit crabs

Instrumental: food, pearls, venomous, invasive, aquarium
Eco: main food, predators, main reason plants evolved chemical defenses, decomposers

Instrumental: food, disease, pollinators, honey, pests, aquarium
Eco: live everywhere, decomposers, abundant

Instrumental: disease, crop pests
Eco: grazers, prey, predators, major components of limestone/coral reefs

Instrumental: food, aquaria, poisonous
Eco: filler feeder

Instrumental: food, aquaria, invasive
Sharks, rays
Eco: top marine predators

Instrumental: entertainment, risk, aquaria, fisheries
Sturgeons, Paddle fish
Instrumental: fisheries, caviar, isinglass
Bony Fishes
Eco: food, key species in food chains

Instrumental: poisonous, tourism, fisheries
Eco: important predators and prey

Instrumental: pharmaceuticals, food, pet, trade, invasive
Eco: important predators and prey

Instrumental: pet trade, crocodile skin/meat, invasive, leather
Eco: predators, prey, pollinators, dispersers, nest construction

Instrumental: food hunting, captivity, feather dusters, bird watching, disease, crop pests
Eco: main grazers/predators, manuring, burrowing, trampling

Instrumental: food hunting, pets, zoos, working animals, tourism, pests
- Variables that govern change in population size



Biotic potential of a population
rate population would grow if resources were unlimited

-there’s always limits to population growth in nature
Environmental resistance
-All the factors acting together to limit population growth in nature
Carrying capacity

-number of individuals of a species that can be sustained in a give area
Exponential growth
Population with few if any resource limitations

Starts out slowly then proceeds faster and faster
Logistic population growth
Exponential growth followed by steady decrease in growth

Encounters environmental resistance
Minimum Viable Population (MVP)
Certain population size upon which intrinsic rate of increase depends

If population declines below MVP mates hard to find, interbreed
Density dependent
Greater effect as populations density increases
Density Independent
Affect population size regardless of density
Types of population fluctuations
Stable- Fluctuates slightly above/below carrying capacity

Irruptive- Usually stable, periodically explodes then creases

Irregular- chaotic, no recovering pattern

Cyclic- major fluctuations at regular intervals
Predator-Prey Cycles
Top-dawn control hypothesis
Predator controls prey numbers

Bottom- Up hypothesis
prey decreases caused by food shortages
All offspring exact genetic copies
Produce offspring from recombination of gametes from two parents
Costs of sexual reproduction

Genetic errors

Courtship costs
Benefits of sexual reproduction
Biparental care

Greater genetic diversity
Reproductive strategies
Semelparous- reproduce sexually once

Heroparous- reproduce repeatedly
R- Selected traits
High intrinsic rate of increase

Reproduce early

Put much energy in reproduction

Little or no parental care


Irregular/chaotic population cycles

Poor competitors
K- Selected traits

Little energy in reproduction

Reproduce late

Few offspring

Parental care

best stable ecosystems

Survivorship curves
Represent age structure of population

Three types

-Late loss
Few young produced, most survive

-Early loss
Many young produced, few survive

-Constant loss
Predictions for global warming
Massive displacement of humans

Extinction of some island nations

18-35% plant and animal extinctions by 2050

Water disputes
Grizzly Bears in the Artic
Live on the ice

Reproductive rates and weight have declined
Harp Seals in Canadian Artic
Lack of ice led to disappearance of all pup

can’t swim
ice breaking up is hard on the penguins
Factors exacerbating the effects of global warming
as ice melts, pollutants concentrate

soot attracts heat and melts ice

loss of ice cover decreases reflectance
Global dimming
gradual reduction in irradiance at Earth’s surface- 4% per decade

creates cooling effect, masked global warming until aerosol particles
Ozone depletion
Slow decline in total ozone in stratosphere

Huge seasonal lose of ozone over south pole
Causes of ozone depletion
Emission of cfc’s and halons

Ozone layer stops most harmful UV-B light from reaching Earth
Effects of UV
increase in skin cancer

phytoplankton decreases predicted
damage to plants

could cause widespread

could cause widespread damage to exposed organisms
Biodiversity crisis
Human activities changing ecosystems on Earth at an increasing rate

Loss of biodiversity and ecosystems is our most serious and urgent problem
5 Main causes of the crisis (human activities)
Over exploitation

Invasive species


Habitat destruction and alteration

Overpopulation and rising standards of living
Over exploitation
Over hunting

Over fishing

Pet trade

Invasive species
species introduced to new areas either purposefully or inadvertently by humans
Problem with invasive
Lack natural predators, prey, parasites, etc.

Lack over habitats from, eat, or parasitize natural species
Stopping invasive species
Identify characteristics predisposing species toward invasiveness and ecosystems towards invisibility

Declare/inspect good

Ban transfer of invasive

Ballast discharge/stylization/nitrogen pumping
Pollution threat
Serious problem in wetlands, ocean, industrial areas, cities

Uncontrolled increase in developing countries

Now causing global warming
Buffer zone
is the best reserve design
Biologists role
Have a central role

Provision of accurate scientific information

Starting point for conservation action
Conservation strategies
Single-species approach
May help protect ecosystems

In-situ conservation
Protected areas

Ex-situ conservation
Zoos, aquaria, botanical gardens