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83 Cards in this Set

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conceptual framework
a set of interconnected ideas, concepts, and assumptions that helps organize thinging from a particular perspective. The field of family science includes a variety of major conceptual frameworks: family systems theory, the family strengths framework, the symbolic interaction framework, the social construction framework, and the feminist framework
research study
careful, systematic, and patient investigation in a field of knowledge to establish facts or priciples, test hypotheses, or better understand processes
idiographic approach
a theoretical approach that focuses on the study of individuals and indvidual differences
nomothetic approach
a theoretical approach that focuses on developinga theory that works for a great number of cases. researchers using this approach believe it is possible to develop a general family theory
family systems theory
a conceptual framework that views everything that happens to any family member as having an impact on everyone else in the family, because family members are interconnected and operate as a group, or family systems
family system
one of the four major components of the sociocultural context in which families live; focuses on the interconnectedness of family members
general systems theory
a set of principles and concepts that can be applied to all typles of systems, living and nonliving
system
a set of interconnected components that form a whole; what happens to one component affects all the other components
multiple system levels
general systems theory holds that systems are embedded within other systems, layer upon layer
suprasytem
in the general systems theory, a large system that incorporates smaller subsystems
subsystem
in the general systems theory, a small system that is part of a larger suprasystem
boundaries
the lines that both separate systems from and connect systems to each other. the notion of a boundary implies a hierarchy of interconnected systems, each larger than the one before it
ecology
the study of how all the organisms in a system relate to one another
human ecosystem
a model showing how various human subsystems interrelate among each other. to really understnad a specific family system, one also needs to consider the various system levels it influences and that influence it.
wholeness
a characteristic of systems; general systems theorists believe that the whole is more than the sum of its parts
interdependence of parts
a characteristic of systems; the parts or elements of a system are interconnected in such a way that if one part is changed, the other parts are automatically affected
open system
a family system that is open to growth and change; also called a morphogenic system
mophogenic system
a system that is open to growth and change; also called an open system
closed system
a family system that has the copacity to maintain the status quo and avoids change; also called a morphostatic system
morphostatic system
a family system that has the copacity to maintain the status quo and avoids change; also called a closed system
centrifulgal interaction
behavior that pushes system components away from one another, decreasing the system's connectedness
centripetal interaction
behavior that pulls system components away from each other, decreasing the system's connectedness
family strengths framework
a conceptual framework proposing that if researchers study only family problems, they will find only problems in families, but that if they are interested in family strengths, they must study strong families; identifies six qualities that strong families commonly demonstrate: commitment, appreciation and affection, positive communication, enjoyable time together, spiritual well-being, and the ability to manage stress and crisis effectivily
appreciation and affection
one of the six major qualities identified by researchers working within the family strengthes framework
commitment
attachment to another. one of the six major qualities identified by researchers working within the family strengthes framework; also, the congitive component of Sternberg's three demensions of love.
positive communication
one of the six major qualities identified by researchers working within the family strengths framework
enjoyable time together
one of the six major qualities identified by researchers working within the family strengths framework
spiritual well-being
one of the six major qualities identified by researchers working within the family strengths framework
ability to cope with stress and crisis
one of the six major qualities identified by researchers working within the family strengths framework
family development framework
a concetual framework proposing that if researchers study only family problems, they will find onlly problems in families, but that if they are interested infamily strengths, they must study strong families; identifies six qualities that strong families commonly demonstrate: commitment, appreciation and affection, positive communication, enjoyable time together, spiritual well-being, and ability to cope with stress and crisis
symbolic interation framework
a conceptual framework that focuses on the internal perceptions of family members and examines how they learn roles and rules in society throughinteraction and shared meaning
role
the expected behavior of a person or group in a given social category, such as husband, wife, supervisor, or teacher
role taking
the process whereby people learn how to play roles correctly by practicing and getting feedback from others
role making
the process of creating new roles or revising existing roles
definition of the situation
the concept that a situation is based on a person's subjective interpretation; hence people can have different views on the same situation
looking-glass self
the idea that you learn about yourself based on the feedback you recieve from others
social construction framework
a conceptual framework that proposes that human beings are profoundly immersed in the social world and that our understanding of this world and beliefs about this world are social products
gender
the learned characteristics and behaviors associated with biological sex in a particular culture
instrumental role
according to Parson and Bales's model of the modern family, the husband-father's role-being the bread winner, the manager and leader of the family
expressive role
according to parson and bales's model of the modern family, the wife-mother's role-caring for the emotional well-being of the family, providing nurturing and comfort
cohesion
togetherness or closeness of a family; one of the three dimensions of the Couple and Family Map
personification
the belief that everything one's partner does is a reflection on oneself; leads to attempts to control the partner's behavior
flexibility
a family's ability to change and adapt int he face of stress or crisis; one of the three dimensions of the Couple and Family Map
Couple and Family Map
a graphic repsentation of dynamic relationships within families, comprising three central dimensions: cohesion, flexibility, and communication
balanced families
families who fit into the four centeral categories of the Couple and Family Map: families who are flexibly connected, or structurally cohesive
mid-range families
families who are extreme on one dimension of the Couple and Family Map but balanced on teh other dimension. there are eight mid-range family types. for example, a family might be structurally enmeshed: extreme on cohesion but balanced on flexibility
unbalanced families
families who fall at the extremes on both the flexibility and the cohesion dimensions of the Couple and Family Map: chaotically enmeshed, chaotically disengaged, rigidly enmeshed, or rigidely disengaged, fmailies.
communication
the way humans created and share meaning, both verbally and nonverbally; the foundation for developing and maintaining relationships
linear causality model
an interpersonal communication model that assumes a direct, or liear, relationship between cause and effect
cicular causuality model
an interpersonal commuication model that describes an interaction pattern in which both parties view their behavior as a reaction to the other's behavior rather than as something for which they are each responsible. the first person sends out a message that causes a change in and a response from the second person. that response causes a new response in the first person, whose response initiates another response from the second person, and so on. This type of communication cycle can escalate into conflict.
nonverbal communication
the communication of emotions by mean other than words, such as touch, body movement, facial expression, and eye contact
mixed message
a message in which ther eis a dicrepancy between the verbal and the nonverbal components; the receiver hears one thing but simultaneously feels something else
double bind
a situation in which the message relayed by the speaker calls into question the type of relationship the recevier has with the speaker
metacommunication
communicating about communication
self-disclosure
revealing to another person personal information or feelings that that individual could not otherwise learn
persuasive listening
a style of listening in which the "listener" is looking only for an opportunity to take over and control the direction of the conversation
directive listening
a style of listening in which the listner attempts to control the direction of the conversation through the use of questions
attentive listening
a style of listening focused on fully understanding the speaker's point of view; characterized by encouragement rather than trying to direct or control the speaker
assertive communication
a style of interpersonal communication that involves expressing one's self-interests and wishes without degrading or putting down the other person
passive communication
a style of interpersonal communtication characterized by an unwillingness to say what one thinks, feels, or wants
aggressive communication
a styel of interpersonal communication that attempts to hurt or put down the receiver while protecting the aggressor's self-esteem
assertiveness
a person's ability to express her or his feelings and desires
self-confidence
a measure of how a person feels about him/herself and the ablilty to control things in his/her life
avoidance
a person's tendendcy to minimize issues and reluctance to deal with issues directly
partner dominance
the degree to which a person feels his or her partner tries to be controlling and dominant in their relationship
pursuer
an individual who wants a very high degree of togetherness and expression of feelings in a relationship
distancer
an individual who (1) wants emotional space when stress is high (2) is self-reliant rather than a help-seeker, and (3) values privacy
dance of anger
Lerner's metaphor to describe styles of managing anger and ways in which these styles interact
underfunctioner
an individual who is too highly flexible and disorganized and becomes less competent under stress
overfunctioner
an individual who knows what is best not only for him/herself but for everybody else as well they cannot let others solve their problems themselves
blamer
a person whose style of anger management is characterized by a short temper, emotionally intese responses to stress, and the belief that others are responsible for his/her feelilngs and problems
gunnysacking
an alienating fighting tactic in which a person saves up unresolved grievances until he or shie explodes, resulting in a major confrontaion
passive-aggressive behavior
feigning agreement or acting as if everything is okay but later becoming hostile or aggressive; an indirect way of expressing anger
incongruity humor
humor that points out things in life that don't fit together logicall; a tool for couples and families who want to "fight fair"
closure
the resolution of an issue
competitive style
a style of conflict resolution characterized by aggression, lack of cooperation, pursuit of personal concerns at the expense of the other, adn desire to "win' at all costs
collaborative style
a style of conflict resolution characterized by a high degree of assertiveness about makeing one's own goals coupled with the concerns of others
avoidance style
a style of conflict resolution characterized by a nonassertive and passive behavior; aboider often withdraw from the conflict or change the subject
accommodating style
a style of conflict resolution characterized by non assertive but cooperative behavior; accommodaters subjugate their own wants and needs to describe only artifically induced terminations
brainstorming
a conflict-resolution strategy that involves thinking of as many solutions to a problem as possible
quid pro quo
a strategy for negotiating differences in which one person agrees to do something in exchange for the other person's agreement to do something else of equal value or importance; "this for that"
quid pro quid
a strategy for negotiating differences in which one person gets to do what he or she wants in exchange for doing something another person requests; "this for that"
agreeing to disagree
a negotiating strategy in which two people are unable to agree on opposing courses of action and decide to take neither course of action