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145 Cards in this Set

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-____ often drives our interactions
-this part of us comes from ____ in our lives
-unconscious
-patterns
States that "human beings have a pervasive drive to form and maintain at least a minimum quantity of lasting, positive, and significant relationships"
-Who made it?
-belongingness hypothesis
-Baumeister and Leary, 1995
-Belongingness is a ___. It is ____
-need, essential
what are 4 survival benefits of relationships?
1. supplies a mate
2. share food
3. child care
4. advantage over individual
Our need to belong consists of 2 things:
1. frequent and positive interactions with at least a few people
2. stability~consistency over time
If you are the one ending a relationship, you first feel ___, then ____
relief, guilt
-5 important needs we can only get met in close relationship
-who?
-1. intimacy
2. social integration
3. need to be nurtured
4. need for assistance
5. reassurance
-Weiss
-Humanism is based on theories from 3 things
1. Rousseau
2. Existentialism
3. Phenomenology
-look at whole self
-believed people are born basically good and are shaped by nature
-phenomenology
-Rousseau
struggling to find meaning in life
existentialism
If you are the one ending a relationship, you first feel ___, then ____
relief, guilt
-5 important needs we can only get met in close relationship
-who?
-1. intimacy
2. social integration
3. need to be nurtured
4. need for assistance
5. reassurance
-Weiss
-Humanism is based on theories from 3 things
1. Rousseau
2. Existentialism
3. Phenomenology
-look at whole self
-believed people are born basically good and are shaped by nature
-phenomenology
-Rousseau
struggling to find meaning in life
existentialism
___ refers to a general affectional linkage between persons
attachment
___ is how infants cling to mother long before it can actually recognize her
organic affection
____ proposed that infants develop an attachment to their primary care givers and that from this attachment, they develop ____ ____ ____, or cognitive and emotional blue print, of how relationships are likely to unfold in the future.
Bowlby, Internal working model
___ refers to a general affectional linkage between persons
attachment
_____ developed strange situation
Ainsworth
___ is how infants cling to mother long before it can actually recognize her
organic affection
2 aspects of Baumeister and Leary's argument (belongingness theory):
1. relationships are good but there can be too much of a good thing
2. Sometimes the loss of a relationship can be replaced with another
____ proposed that infants develop an attachment to their primary care givers and that from this attachment, they develop ____ ____ ____, or cognitive and emotional blue print, of how relationships are likely to unfold in the future.
Bowlby, Internal working model
_____ developed strange situation
Ainsworth
2 aspects of Baumeister and Leary's argument (belongingness theory):
1. relationships are good but there can be too much of a good thing
2. Sometimes the loss of a relationship can be replaced with another
Mikulincer and Segal (1990) 4 subtypes of loneliness feelings:
1. depressive loneliness (can involve longing for a loved one)
2. emotional isolation (feeling rejected)
3. esteem loneliness (fear, shame, and alienation)
4. social estrangement (no social ties)
The most common type of research is ____, and it includes:
self-report: questionnaires, interviews, behavioral records, and personal accounts
____ are the most popular type of research because they are inexpensive and easy to administer and can vary in length
questionnaires
_____ involve having participants record experiences in a type of journal
behavioral records
_____ can include field (naturalistic) or or in the lab.
observation
_____ research uses information that already exists in order to answer particular research questions.
archival
The choice of research method is affected by the type of _____ and the ____
question, researcher
___ is an orientation toward or away from a particular object that involves an emotion, some sort of belief or knowledge, and a tendency to behave in a certain way.
attitude
___ as an attitude is "an orientation toward or away from a person that consists of a cognitive structure of beliefs and knowledge about the person, affect felt and expressed toward him or her, and behavioral tendencies to approach or avoid that person."
attraction
___ (aka emotion)
affect
____ theories are concerned with harmony and are built on the original theory developed by ____
balance, Heider
____ is a balance model particularly relevant to attraction: basic idea is that people have harmony in the people, things, and relationships around them
A-B-X model
balance theories say that life is simpler and attraction is greater when people and things are in ____
harmony
____ ____- individuals experience discomfort when they discover that their attitudes are inconsistent with those of a close partner and are motivated to change their attitudes to achieve congruence with the attitudes of the partner
attitude alignment
Attraction increases in direct proportion to increases in _____ between the participant and bogus stimulus stranger
similarity
____ ____ emphasizes the rewarding and punishing aspects of people's interactions and has led to considerable research about close relationships, particularly why people do or do not continue them.
exchange theory
____ of ____ is when you get aroused thru an event and then think that arounsal came from a person.
misattribution of arousal
____ ____ are qualities once seen as alluring and fascinating in a romantic partner are often the same or very similar to those considered flaws and weaknesses after a break up.
fatal attractions
____ is the idea that people will interact more in close spaces and therefore become more attracted to each other
proximity
people more _______ were better liked
emotionally expressive
FRequent nodding and indications of vocal interest were greater for ____ relationships
friendship
____ ____ is the idea that we seek other partners who are of equal attractiveness to us
matching hypothesis
____ theory suggests that stimulus characteristics are important early in a relationship, but in later stages, values and role capability assume greater significance
SVR (stimulus-value-role)
____ ___ were among the most important characteristics to falling in love. Also important were ____ and how well the potential partner ____
desireable characterstics, similarity, liked the respondent
_____ is the feeling that emotions and behaviors are given and received fairly equally in a relationship
reciprocity
___ ____ proposes that men and women have different reproductive strategies
parental investment
___ ___ theory proposes that since women and men evolved different short-term and long-term strategies for mate selection, these differences may be expressed in a number of ways
sexual strategies theory
___ ____ theory is a comprehensive theory of relationship development as well as a theory of self-disclosure processes in relationships
social penetration theory
___ ____ refers to overt interpersonal behaviors which take place in social intereaction and internal subjectuive processes which precede, accompany, and follow overt change
social penetration
____ are polar opposites that need to be integrated in order to function optimally
dialectics
___ ___ do not actually predict relationship quality or stability
romantic beliefs
____ ____ are idealized beliefs that relationship partners may have about each other
positive illusions
trust is ___ and ___
intrapersonal, interpersonal
qualities necessary for trust:
dependability, faith, responsiveness, and capability of resolving conflict
3 important aspects of commitment
1. personal comm.
2. moral comm.
3. structural
-____ _____ represents positive reasons for maintaining a relationship and is related positively to various aspects of relationship quality.
-____ represents negative reasons for maintaining a relationship and is related negatively to various aspects of relationship quality
-approach commitment
-avoidance commitment
___ ____ proposes that how much one puts into a relationship is indicative of commitment as well as other relational qualities
investment model
_____ theory emphasizes the degree to which relational partners are reciprocally involved in the relationship and involves 2 key constructs:
-interdependence theory, 1. level of dependence, 2. mutuality of dependence
two types of commitment processes:
1. relationship-driven commitment (smooth progress and involves positive feelings about partner and relationship, assessment of partners' compatibility, and willingness to take time for the relationship to develop
2. event-driven commitment (more rapid and more extreme changes in commitment, issues of trust and ambivalence, and uncertainty about relationship
____ ___ of courtship are concerned with how well partners get along with each other
compatibility models
___ ___ ___, wherein similarity of certain personal and contextual variables is important early in relationship,agreement on personal and family values becomes important at later stage, and complementary needs become important farther on
sequential filtering model
____ ___ ___ of courtship are less concerned with relationship stages and more with the relationship process
interpersonal process model
3 types of relationship development in courtship
1. prolonged courtship (slow and difficult progress)
2. accelerated courtship (rapid and seemingly almost problem free)
3. intermediate courtship (characteristics that fell between other two types and had smoothest progression toward marriage
Stage 1 Erikson:
-__ vs __
-age __ to ___
-task:
form an attachment to ____
-trust vs mistrust
-0 - 18 mo
-create foundation ~ learn world is safe and will meet needs
-caregiver
Stage 2 Erikson:
-___ vs ___
-Task:
-free ___ within reason
-rules have to be ___
-autonomy vs shame and doubt
-who am I? searching for independence
-choice
-consistent
Stage 3:
-___ vs ___
-age _ to _
-Task:
-___-oriented
-Goal:
-helps with _____ ____
-initiative vs guilt
-3 to 6
-What can I do?
-process
-to explore abilities in safe environment
-problem solving
Stage 4:
-___ vs ___
-age __ to __
-Task:
-___-oriented
-industry vs inferiority
-6 to 12
-accomplish something valued by society
-product
Stage 5:
-___ vs ___
-Age __ to __
-Task:
-___ are a huge part
-___ ____ occurs
-identity vs role confusion
-12 to 18
-Who am I? Develop sense of self
-peers
-identity crisis
Stage 6:
-____ vs ____
-age ___
-Task:
-intimacy vs isolation
-20s
-what can I do? Establish adult intimate relationships
Stage 7:
-___ vs ___
-age __ to __
-Task:
-challenge of this stage:
-generativity vs stagnation
-20s to 60s
-nurture: take care of children, arts, nature "givine back"
-finding fresh outlets for creative impulses
Stage 8:
-___ vs ____
-age
-Task:
-aka "__ __"
-ego integrity vs despair
-60+
-integrating prior stages
-life review
3 things being checked by strange situation
1. secure base/safe base (does child check with mom then explore? totally ignore mom? cling to mom?)
2. child prefer mom or stranger
3. how child reacts to mom when feel scared
checking in with mom before exploring is called ______
social referencing
in strange situation, what happens in first separation? First reunion? second separation? Final reunion?
-1st sep- mom leaves and child is left with stranger
-1st reu- mom returns and stranger leaves
-2nd sep- mom leaves child alone
-2nd reun- mom returns and stranger leaves
3 major response patterns to strange situation (and %):
1. secure attachment (65%)
2. avoidant attachment (23%)
3. ambivilant/anxious
In secure attachment:
-child uses mom as ___ ___
-mom leaves:
-mom returns:
-child prefers ___
-mom is ___ and ___
-safe base
-child upset, but calms and plays
-child is happy, greets mom warmly
-mom
-positive and consistent
In avoidant attachment:
-readily ____ ___ ____
-Mom leaves:
-Mom returns:
-prefer ___
-mom is ___ but is either ___ or ___
-child learns to be ___ early
-separates from mom
-no concern
-ignores or avoids
-stranger
-consistent, rejecting or overly intrusive
-independent
in anxious/ambivalent attachment:
-child ___ ___ to mom
-mom leaves:
-mom returns:
-stranger:
-result of _____ behavior pattern from mom
-stays close
-very upset, never calm
-clingy and resistant, seek her yet reject her attention
-resist contact and comfort
-inconsistent
-In Israel, children are raised primarily by other adults. __% are securely attachment
-German children: __% secure, __% avoidant
-Japanese have high ___ and hardly any ___ attachment. Raise children to be ____
-37%
-33%, 49%
-anxious, avoidant, dependent
-
Hazen and Shaver (1987) looked at 1200 adults, average age 36. Put questionnaire in Rocky Mt News. ___% secure, ___% anxious, ___% avoidant
56%, 19%, 35%
Average length of relationship:
secure: __ yrs
insecure: __ years
10, 5-6
feeling of deprivation and dissatisfaction
loneliness
loneliness depends on individual's ___, not necessarily related to ____
-perception, number of social ties
2 broad categories of loneliness:
1. social isolation-social network of friends and acquantinces
2. emotional isolation- single intense relationship
the loneliest people are ___ and ____
adolecents and young adults
2 reasons young adults are the loneliest people:
1. trying to define own identity
2. constantly in new social situations
3. high expectations for relationships
David Russel founded the ____ ___ ___. Started in ____ with 75 items. Now ___.
-loneliness found to be different from __, __, and __
UCLA Loneliess scale, 1970s, 20
-self-esteem, anxiety, social desirability
page in notes about descrepency model
page in notes about descrepency model
7 interpersonal behaviors of lonely people
1. self-fulfilling prophesy
2. evaluate others more negatively
3. mistrust others
4. interpret other's actions and intentions negatively
5. more hesitant to express opinion in public
6. more passive
7. low level of self-disclosure
effects of loneliness:
-youth:
-college:
-older adults:
-running away from home, delinquent acts
-low grades, dropping out
-memory problems, poor health outcomes, neglect self care, lower immune system
diagram of loneliness
negative reaction to others-->
loneliness-->
negative reaction by others-->
awkward and unresponsive social behavior-->
4 sets of feelings for loneliness:
1. despiration
2. impatient boredome
3. self-depreciation
4. depression
4 things people do when they are lonely:
1. sad passivity (cry, sleep, sit and think, do nothing, overeat, take tranquilizers, watch YV, get drunk)
2. active solitude (study or work, exercise, listen to music, read, play music, etc)
3. social contact (call and friend, visit someone)
4. distractions (spend money, go shopping)
___ ___ is collecting data systematically usuing different techniques/methods
scientific investigation
one of the goals of research is ____
-objectivity
___ is to define variables.
operationalize
-___ method is to ask someone about themselves. ___ method is to ask someone about someone else
-insider, outsider
-____ ____ is someone who interacts with participants
-___ ___ is watching and not participating
-participant observer
-systematic observation
____ info is specific info from individuals. ___ info involves #s and broad generatlizations
-qualitative, quantitative
____ had qualitative and quantitative research, but she analyzed own data
-Reeder
Gottman article used ____ type of research. It was also ___ and ___ at the same time
lab, structured, unstructured
Setting out what you will do is ____ in experimentation. WHen you have no effect on what participants are doing, it is _____
structure, unstructured
-a ____ sample uses whatever potential partipants are readily and conventiently accessible.
-_____ respondants represent the group you want to generalize to
-convenience
-representative sample
____ ____ is how volunteers may be different from those who don't volunteer
volunteer bias
3 things that interact as an attitude:
1. emotion
2. belief or knowledge
3. behavioral tendency
Gottman article used ____ type of research. It was also ___ and ___ at the same time
lab, structured, unstructured
Setting out what you will do is ____ in experimentation. WHen you have no effect on what participants are doing, it is _____
structure, unstructured
-a ____ sample uses whatever potential partipants are readily and conventiently accessible.
-_____ respondants represent the group you want to generalize to
-convenience
-representative sample
____ ____ is how volunteers may be different from those who don't volunteer
volunteer bias
3 things that interact as an attitude:
1. emotion
2. belief or knowledge
3. behavioral tendency
balance theories say the we like _____
harmony
______'s A-B-X model (1961) says that if person A is friends with B, and a with C, A would like B and C to get along....provides balance
Newcomb's
Person P and person O have a realtionship characterized by mutual liking and disliking. Then they get an issues (X). X will create ___ and motivate ____
tension, change
P has 4 options:
1. change attitude toward X
2. change perception about O's attitude
3. reduce importance assigned to X
4. reduce attraction for O
Which option between P and O is least likely?
4. reduce attraction for O
____ conditioning involves _____-->_____-->______
operant, voluntary behavior-->consequence-->future of behavior
4 different kinds of reinforcers:
1. primary (meet basic physiological needs)
2. secondary (not valuable in and of themselves, but they can get you something valuable [$, gift certificates, tokens])
3. social reinforcers (smile, kind words, can be verbal or non)
4. non-social (privelage)
_____ reinforcement is reinforcement every time
continuous
____ reinforcement is not every time, and is ____ than continuous
not every time, stronger
-___ ____ is reinforcement every .... time
-___ ___ reinforcement is every ....minute
-_____ reinforcement has no pattern
-fixed ratio
-fixed interval
-randomly
attraction increases as ____ increases
similarity
3 kinds of similarity
1. demographic
2. attitudes and values
3. personality
Dutton and Aron (1974) found that menon suspension bridge had stories with increased ____ imagery, and ___ called female experimenter. Sturdy bridge, __ of __ called. Suspension bridge and male, __ of ___ called
sexual, half, 2 of 16, 2 of 7
___ of ___ is attributing feelings of arousal to female instead of bridge
misattribution of arousal
___ and ____ effect is when couples feel and increase of love because of parental interference. This is an example of ___ ___
Romeo and Juliet effect, psychological reactance
As the bar closes, people rate each other more attractive. this is called ____ effect, or ___ __
barrier effect, forbidden fruit
When a quality that originally attracted you now turns you off: _____. Trait is usually ___ ____
fatal attraction, sexual aggressiveness
Felmless study found that ____ led to break-ups in couples
dissimilarity
Moreland and Beach (1992) study found that increased ___ of females attending class led to increased ____ to her
familiarity, attraction
The MIT study found that even a few ___ can make a difference in relationships
feet
_____ accentuates out feelings about others
proximity
first impressions involve processes of __ and __, which we use to make sense of our social world
perception and judgment
____ either add or subtract from hapiness of relationships
perceptions
first we ____--> determines what we ____-->affects how we ____
think, feel, act
the ___ ___ is the idea that we have a tendency to give first info we receive about another person more importance than info we find out later on
primacy effect
___ ___ is when we seek info that proves you right vs looking fo examples that will prove you wrong
confirmatory bias
people in the study done by Snyder and Swann (1978) chose questions that matched the ____ ___ they were looking for
personality trait
MacDonald and Ross (1999) found that the least accurate in estimating relationship is ___, and most accurate is ____
you, peers/roommates
blah
blahh
blahhh
blahhhh