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89 Cards in this Set

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what are the components of dietary fiber?
Pectin, Cellulose
Lecithin is what kind of lipid?
Phospholipid
F.a.t.t.o.m
Food: High Protein
fAttom
Acidity: 4.6 or higher
faTtom
Time:4 hours
fatTom
Temperature: 40-140
fattOm
Oxygen
fattoM
Moisture: greater than .85 Available water
HACCP
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point
How can enzymatic browning be controlled?
sulfites, ascorbic acid, citric or acetic acid, blanching
Alkaline Phosphate?
adequacy of processing

(milk)
peroxidase?
adequacy of processing

(veggies)
What factors affect sensory responses?
gender, culture, prior experience, exposure, genetics, smoking, age, diseases, radiation
Which is worse: Clostridium botulinum or salmonella spp.
c. botulinum
which is worse: staphylococuss aureus or escherichia coli?
e. coli
FDA
Food and Drug Administration

interstate commerce except for meat and poultry
USDA
United States Department of Agriculture

meat, poultry
EPA
Environmental Protection Agency

pesticides, drinking water
CDC
Center for Disease Control
FTC
Federal Trade Commerce

Trade and labeling
OSHA
Occupational Safety Health Association
NFMS
National Marine Fisheries Service
BATF
Bureau of Alcohol, tobacco, and Firearms

alcohol
FD&C
Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics

alteration/misbranding
Infection

Example?
when a microorganism is ingested

Salmonella
Intoxication

Example>
toxin is ingested

C. Botulinum
Intoxification

Example?
microorganism is ingested and causes a toxin to be produced

C. Peringes
Staphylococcus aureas
Bacteria
Hepatitus A
virus
Salmonella
bacteria
Clostridium perfringens
Bacteria
Clostridium botulinum
Bacteria
Escherichia coli
Bacteria
Trichinella spiralis
parasite
Listeria monocytogenes
Bacteria
bitter taste?
alkaloids
sour taste?
acid
umami
MSG
Hedonic scale
rate from dislike to like
Triangle test
2 alike, 1 different
what is the benefit of grade standards?
Assess quality-help producers, consumers
Select suppliers?
willing to test product to ensure the same quality over time
TQM
Total Quality Management
HACCP
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point

manages Safety
monosaccharides?

example?
1 sugar

glucose
disaccharide?

example?
2 sugars

sucrose
polysaccharide?

Example?
more than 2 sugars

starch (amalyose, amalopectin)
What is the relationship between glucose and sucrose?

How do they differ?
Sucrose is glucose + fructose

They are both sweet, glucose is the reducing sugar
amylose vs. amylopectin
Amylose is the linear form, amylopectin is the branched form
What are the sugar units of starch?
Glucose
What enzyme can break down starch?
Digestive enzyme (amylase)
what are the products of starch breakdown?
glucose, maltose, dextrins
Why are reducing sugars important?

Examples?
They react with proteins to affect flavor and color

ex: maltose, lactose
How can proteins be denatured?
chemicals (acids, alkali), heating, stirring
How can proteins be broken down?
enzymes (Proteases)
funcional properties of proteins?
gel, foam, emulsify, absorb H20
saturated fatty acids?
single bond
Monounsaturated fatty acids?
double bond
Polyunsaturated fatty acid?
more than one double bond
Stearic Acid?
Saturated Fatty acid
Oleic Acid?
Monounsaturated Fatty Acid
Linoleic Acid?
Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid
Linolenic Acid?
Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid
Omega 3 Fatty Acid
Fish Oil, veggies, walnuts
Omega 6 Fatty Acid
corn oil, peanut oil, soybean oil
What happens to a fat or oil when it is hydrogenated?
take Away a double bond
what do organic acids do in foods?
Give fruit tartness, slow down bacterial spoilage
What are the two major types of food additives?

Examples?
Processing-CO2, Nitrate, Benzoyl Peroxide, sodium hydrase

Final Product-Propionic Acid, lecithin
What are 3 major types of chemical reaction that affect food quality?
Browning, Rancidity, Enzyme Action
What are examples of textures and consistency controlling agents used as food additives?
lecithin-salad dressings

sodium sulfate-baking soda
What 3 major chemical actions affect food quality?
browning, rancidity, enzyme action
Carmelization?
high heat
Milliard
browning caused by chemical reaction between sugars and proteins
Enzymatic browning
reaction between oxygen and polyphenal oxidase
What is the difference between oxidative rancidity and hydrolitic rancidity?
Oxidative Rancidity is caused by oxidation of mono and polyunsaturated fats, and happens at the double bonds, Hydrolytic rancidity is caused by breakdown of fat into glycerol and fatty acids

It can be controlled by removing light and oxygen
What is the nature of enzymes? How are they classified? what are two things that can control enzymes?
Protein nature, classified by sustance they affect (Proteases, Lipases, Carbohydrases), control by temp, chemicals, pH
Invertase
soft center of covered cherries
lactase
low lactose products
rennin
cheese
pectinase
clears fruit juice
lipase
cheese flavor
papain
meat tenderizer
What undesirable change is caused by proteases?

Polyphenolase (polyphenol oxidase)?

Peroxidase?
Rotting

Browning

Softening
Hunter Lab experiment measures _______?
Color
viscometer measures _________?
Consistency
Instron measures __________?
Texture
what do pathogenic bacteria do?
cause disease
what do spoilage bacteria do?
break down food (affect quality)
SSOPs?
Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures