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13 Cards in this Set

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Name the four structures involved in all frontal-subcortical circuits (direct connections)
CSGT:
1. Cortex (Frontal)
2. Striatum
3. Globus Pallidus/substantia nigra
4. Thalamus
Name the two frontal-subcortical circuts involved in motor movement
1. MOTOR(supplementary area): General control of preparatory (premovement) activity and serial/parallel processing of movements initiated in the cortex.

2. OCULOMOTOR(frontal eye fields): system for orienting the head and eyes to the environment.
Personality Change is the hallmark of what Frontal lobe disorder?
Damage to Orbitofrontal Circuit

Personality changes include:
irritability, lability, fatuous euphoria, inappropriate response to social cues, undue familiarity,lack of empathy.
Name 3 symptoms of damage to the Dorsolateral Circuit:
Symptoms may include:

a. Poor organizational strategies
b. Poor memory search strategies
c. Stimulus-bound behavior /environmental dependency
d. Impaired set shifting & maintenance
e. Verbal-manual dissociation
Bilateral lesions to this frontal lobe circuit causes akinetic mutism
Anterior Cingulate Circuit
Damage to this frontal-subcortical circuit causes an apathetic presentation.
Anterior Cingulate Circuit
A= Apathetic

Symptoms include:

psychic emptiness, poverty of spontaneous speech, indifference to pain, poor response inhibition, reduced creative thought
_________ is the excitatory neurotransmitter involved in the connections between the Frontal Cortex and Striatum.
Glutamate
__________ is the inhibitory transmitter involved in the connections between the Striatal structures and the Globus Pallidus/Substantia Nigra
GABA
The Caudate and the Putamen are both structures in the ________.
Striatum
Aquired OCD can result in lesions to this frontal-subcortical circuit.
Orbital Frontal Circuit
All of the direct circuits in the Frontal-subcortical circuts are mediated by ____________.
Indirect circuits
How do the direct and indirect frontal-subcortical circuits impact the thalamus differently?
The Direct connection DISinhibits the thalamus.

The Indirect connection INhibits the thalamus.
What are "closed" and "open" loops in the frontal subcortical circuits?
All 5 circuits have a "closed" loop:
Frontal cortex > Striatum > GP/SN > Thamalus (loops back to Frontal Cortex)

Also "open" elements in each circuit: allows for posterior association cortices to affect frontally mediated behavior or to serve as communiction points between the circuits.