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37 Cards in this Set

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basal ganglia
masses of nerve cells deep within the brain at the base of the cerebral hemispheres
brain stem
bottom most portion of the brain connceting the cerebrun with the spinal cord. the midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata and reticular formation are a part of the brain stem
cerebellopontine angle
the angle between the pons and the cerebellum
cerebellum
second largest area og the brain-- two hemispheres. connected to the brain stem
cerebrospinal fluid
clear watery fluid made by the ventricles that bathes and cushions. it circulates through the centricles and the subarachnoid space
cerebrum
largest areas of the brain, two hemispheres.
corpus callosum
connest the two hemispheres
cranial nerves
12 pairs
hypothalamus
makes up part of the wall of the third ventricle and is the base of the optic chiasm
medulla oblongata
a part of the brain stem that connects the brain with the spinal cord. contains the origins og the 9th, 10th, 11th and 12th crainal nerves
meninges
three thin membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord
midbrain
short portion of the brain stem between the pons and the cerebral hemispheres. the top of the midbrain is the tectum. the 3rd and 4th cranial nerves originate her
optic chiasm
under the hypothalamus where the two optic nerves cross over to the opposite side
pineal gland
lies below the corpus callosum. produces melatonin
pituitary gland
attached to and receives messages from the hypothalamus. consists of two lobes ant and post. prolactin, corticotropin, and gh are produced here
pons
part of the brain stem. the origin of 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th cranial nerves
posterior fossa
contains the cerebellum and brain stem. tentorium seperates the posterior fossa from the cerebral hemishperes
reticular formation
central core of the brain stem. connects with all parts of the brain and brain stem
sellar region
area around the sella turcica
supratentorium
area above the tentorium containing the cerebral hemispheres
tentorium
flap of meninges seperating the cerebral hemispheres from the brain structures in the posterior fossa
thalamus
surrounds the third ventricle
acoustic neuroma
-benign tumor of vestibulocochlear nerve
-located in the angle btwn the pons and cerebellum in posterior fossa
-grows very slowly
-middle aged adults
-females twice as likely
-bilateral tumors are rare and familial
anaplastic astrocytoma AKA maliganant astrocytoma
-infiltrating malignant tumors
-grow rapidly
astrocytoma
-arise from astrocytes (supportive tissue)
-most common primary CNS tumor (about 50% of all brain and spinal cord tumor)
butterfly glioma
hight grade astrocytoma
butterfly appearance on scans because it has spread through both spheres
low grade astrocytoma
-pilocytic astrocytomas
-subependymal giant cell astrocytoma
-noninfiltrating
-may form cysts or form out ofcysts
-slow growing-- mets rare
pilocytic astrocytomas
-occur mainly in children
-most benign of astrocytomas
-cerebellar astrocytomas and optic tract gliomas are oftem pilocytic
subependymal giant cell astrocytoma
ventricular tumor associated with tuberous sclerosis
brain stem gliomas
10-20% brain tumors in children are brain stem glioma
may be astrocytoma, ganglioma, ependymoma
diffuse, focal, exophytic. cervicomedullary are the subtypes
most common subtype of brain stem glioma
diffuse (60-70%)
cerebellar astrocytoma
low grade localized cystic tumor
more common in children
chondroma
rare benign tumor
arises at base of skull especially in the parasellar area
composed of cartilage formed by the meninges and attached to the dura
chondrosarcoma
very rare
arises from bone and is composed of cartilage
rarely mets and slow growing
most common site is sphenoid bone
common in adults older than 40
chordoma
occurs at base of the skull or the end of the spine
benign extradural tumor
frequently invades bone
rare tumor
most often found 21-40
choroid plexus tumor
rare benign tumor
most common in children under 12
eventually will block the flow of csf
craniopharyngioma
benign tumor that arises from embryonic structure
occur in sellar region
may involve third ventricle, optic nerve and pit gland
grow by expansion