Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The Compromise of 1850
Mexican War (1848)
United States contained an equal number (fifteen each) of free and slave states
The vast territory gained by the war threatened to upset this balance
Free-soil policy
Extension of the Missouri Compromise line
Popular sovereignty
Offered the greatest hope for compromise
This notion pleased neither free-soil nor proslavery extremists
The Compromise of 1850
Utah and California sought admission to the Union as free states
Texas, admitted to the Union as a slave state in 1845, aggravated matters by claiming the eastern half of New Mexico
Northerners had grown increasingly unhappy with slavery in the District of Columbia
Southerners complained about lax enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793
Zachary Taylor Plan
Left the decision to the states
Utah and California to apply for admission as free states
New Mexico (where the Mexican government had abolished slavery) was expected to do the same
What would the North gain?
What would the South gain?
Henry Clay (Kentucky) Compromise Bill
The admission of California as a free state
The division of the remainder of the Mexican cession into two territories
New Mexico
The settlement of the Texas-New Mexico boundary dispute on terms favorable to New Mexico
As a pot-sweetener for Texas, an agreement that the federal government would assume the state’s large public debt
Continuation of slavery in the District of Columbia but abolition of the slave trade
A more effective fugitive slave law
Henry Clay (Kentucky) Compromise Bill
Clay rolled all these proposals into a single “omnibus” bill
The debates over the compromise bill during late winter and early spring 1850 marked the last major appearance on the public stage of Henry Clay, John Calhoun, and Daniel Webster, the trio who had stood at the center of American political life since the War of 1812
July 1850
Zachary Taylor died
President Millard Fillmore (New York) supported Clay’s compromise
Stephen A. Douglas (Illinois)
Broke the omnibus into a series of individual measures
Proposed that popular sovereignty settle the slavery issue in New Mexico and Utah
Compromise of 1850
Assessing the Compromise
Northern victories
Admission of California
Abolition of the slave trade in the District of Columbia
Southern victories
Stricter fugitive slave law
Enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Act
Efforts to catch and return runaways inflamed emotions in both North and South. In 1854 a Boston mob aroused by antislavery speeches killed a courthouse guard in an abortive effort to rescue a fugitive slave Anthony Burns. Determined to enforce the law, President Franklin Pierce sent federal troops to escort Burns to the harbor, where a ship carried him back to slavery. As five platoons of troops marched Burns to the ship, 50,000 people lined the streets. One Bostonian hung from his window a black coffin bearing the words “the funeral of liberty.”
Northern Response
“Vigilance” committees spirited endangered blacks to Canada
Lawyers dragged out hearings to raise slave-catchers’ expenses
“Personal liberty laws” hindered state officials’ enforcement of the law
Harriet Beecher Stow’s novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852)
Three hundred thousand copies of Uncle Tom’s Cabin were sold in 1852
1.2 million by summer 1853
State dramatizations reached perhaps fifty times as many people as the novel did
David Potter concluded that the northern attitude toward slavery “was never quite the same after Uncle Tom’s Cabin.”
The Election of 1852
Winfield Scott (Virginia)
Franklin Pierce (New Hampshire)
Carried twenty-seven of the thirty-one states
Collected 254 of 296 electoral votes
Franklin Pierce was the last presidential candidate of the nineteenth century to carry the popular and electoral vote in both North and South
How had the second party system kept the conflict over slavery in check?
Provided Americans other issues to argue about:
Internal improvements
Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
Farmers wanted to organize the large territory west of Iowa and Missouri
Railroad enthusiasts who dreamed of a rail line linking the Midwest to the Pacific also wanted the territory organized
Potential conflict loomed
Some southerners advocated a southern-based Pacific route rather than a midwestern one
Nebraska lay north of the Missouri Compromise line in the Louisiana Purchase, a region closed to slavery
The Crisis of the Union (1857–1860)
The Dred Scott Case (1857)
The Lecompton Constitution (1857)
The Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858)
The Movement for Secession
South Carolina convention (December 20, 1860)
Alabama, Mississippi, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas followed
Confederate State of America (February 4, 1861)
The Coming of War
“Hold, occupy, and posses” federal property in the state that had seceded
Fort Pickens (Florida)
Fort Sumter (Charleston, South Carolina)
April 12, 1861
North Carolina