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16 Cards in this Set

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GROUP METHODOLOGY
average performance of 1+ groups of participants
SINGLE-CASE REASEARCH DESIGNS
Research designed to reveal various nuances and subtleties of behavior

Can teach us what is average by revealing what is not average
CASE STUDY
Intensive description & analysis of a single individual

Frequently describes the application and results of a particular treatment

May describe symptoms, methods used to understand/treat symptoms, evidence for treatment’s effectiveness

lacks a high degree of control
ADVANTAGES OF CASE STUDIES
Provide rich source of info. about individuals and insights into possible causes of behavior

Provides an opportunity to try new therapeutic techniques
ADVANTAGES OF CASE STUDIES
Useful for studying rare behavior:
Difficult to find a group of people that exhibit the same rare behavior

Provide evidence for theories:
Cases that violate a theory indicate that the theory needs to be revised
DISADVANTAGES OF CASE STUDIES
Difficult to draw cause-effect conclusions:
~simultaneous treatments may be going on
~there’s not a high degree of control
DISADVANTAGES OF CASE STUDIES
Researcher is both observer and participant, thus a possible observer bias:
Therapist is motivated to think treatment was effective

Effectiveness is based on subjective impressions of the observer
DISADVANTAGES OF CASE STUDIES
Individuals self-report info. about themselves:
May exaggerate treatment effectiveness
DISADVANTAGES OF CASE STUDIES
External validity is potentially limited:
If the variability in the population is small, then generalizability is increased
If the variability in the population is large, then generalizability is decreased
ISSUES WITH CASE STUDIES
New or unusual findings may lead scientists to revise theories or may lead to new avenues of research

Dramatic findings are often accepted uncritically by nonscientists

Ex. TV ads for weight loss pills (e.g., testimonials)
SINGLE-CASE (N=1) EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS
Focus on the behavior of one individual:
Similar to a repeated measures design for one individual (vs. a group)
SINGLE CASE: STAGE 1
Researchers record the individual’s behavior before any treatment

Enables researchers to describe behavior before treatment

Can predict what the individual’s behavior will be like in the future without treatment
SINGLE CASE: STAGE 2
Researchers record behavior with the same measures as used in baseline stage

By inspecting the difference between baseline and treatment, researchers can infer if the treatment was effective
ABAB REVERSAL DESIGN
Used to demonstrate that behavior changes systematically when they alternate “no treatment” and “treatment”

A= no treatment (control/baseline)
B= treatment (intervention)

Because treatment is removed during the 2nd A stage, any improvement in behavior is likely to be reversed at this point
ABAB METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES
If frequency of behavior does not revert back to baseline in the 2nd A stage, then you cannot be sure that the treatment caused the change in behavior

Behavior may not be expected to rebound to baseline levels (e.g., if skills have been learned)

Variable other than treatment caused the change in behavior (confounding)
MULTIPLE BASELINE DESIGN
Step 1: Measure baseline responses in multiple settings (e.g., home, work, school)

Step 2: Introduce treatment into one setting but not others. Continue measuring responses in all settings

Step 3: Repeat Step 2 for the second setting, then the third, etc.