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69 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Definition of the French Revolution
-French people rose up against the king & the wealthy

-Rev. was political, social, religious, & economic as it swept away the existing political institutions & aimed @ establishing a more egalitarian society & responsible govt.
When did the French Rev. begin & end?
-Began w/ the fall of the Bastille & ended when Napoleoon took power in 1799
What did kind Louis XVI do to weaken France economically, as well as politically?
-His highly expensive wars & lavish lifestyle
Policy of Repression
-strict press censorship

-arbitrary imprisonment of those seeking reform

-banning & burning of books critisizing the govt.

-thus, endangering personal liberty in France
Political Causes
-French rulers were not interested in welfare of the people

-they created a huge debt and ruined economy by...
-engaging in wars of ego
-living lavish lifestyles

-As a result, the people were extremelly displeased
Social Causes
-French society was unfair & unjust

-French society was divided into 3 social classes, or estates
The First Estate
-The clergy
-1% of the clergy owned 20% of the land
-Exempt from most taxes
The Second Estate
-The nobility
-2% of society owned 40% of land
-Held imp. govt. & military positions
-Exempt from most taxes
-Lived life of luxary & ease
The Third Estate
-Bourgeoisie (17% of society)
-middle class merchants & proffessionals
-despised by 1st 2 estates
-Peasants(80% of society)
-paid 50% of their income in taxes
-paid dues to nobles, tithes to the church, sales taxes to the king
-life of misery, discrimination, & humilitation
Economic Causes of Rev.
-Unfair taxes
-Mishandled national economy
-royal treasury emptied by 1786
-While French peasants were starving & dying, nobles were enjoying themselves
Religious & other causes of Rev.
-Religious intolerance persisted
-Influence of Enlightenment philosophers
-Influence of the English & the American Revs.
Estates General
(clergy:300, nobility:300, 3rd estate:600 reps)
-May 5th, 1789-King Louis XVI convenes this ancient assembly in order to raise taxes

-voters drafted petitions of grievance
National Assembly: 1789-1791
-3rd estate declares itself the "Assembly of the Nation," June 17, 1789
-June 29th, 1789-

Tennis Court Oath
-Nat. Ass. resolves not to disband until it has written a constitution
-July 14, 1789-

Bastille
-Bastille stormed & taken by a Paris mob
-July 19-Aug. 3, 1789-

Great Fear
-Peasants attack noble manors
-Aug. 4, 1789-

Jacobin Club Formed
-Nobles in National assembly renounce feudal rights
-Aug. 27, 1789-

Declaration of the Rights of Man
-Assembly issues "Declaration of the Rights of Man."
-Oct. 5-6, 1789-

King Louis brought to Paris
-King Louis brought from Versailles to Tuileries palace in Paris
-July 12, 1790-

Civil Constitution of the Clergy
-Assembly issues "Civil Constitution of the Clergy," requiring elections & oaths
Religious & Other Causes
-Religious intolerance persisted
-Influence of Enlightenment philosophers
-Influence of the English and American Revs.
Estates General
(Clergy:300, Nobility:300, 3rd estate:600 reps)
-May 5th, 1789:King Louis XVI convenes this ancient assembly in order to raise taxes

-During election process, voters traditionally draft petitions of grievance
National Assembly: 1789-1791
-3rd estate declares itself the "Assembly of the Nation," June 17, 1789.
-June 29, 1789-

Tennis Court Oath
-Nat. Ass. not to disband until it has written a constitution.
-July 14, 1789-

Bastille
-Bastille stormed & taken by a Paris mob
-July 19-Aug. 3, 1789-

Great Fear
-Peasants attack noble minors
-Aug. 4, 1789-

Jacobin Club Formed
-Nobles in National Assembly renounce feudal rights
-Aug. 27, 1789-

Declaration of the Rights of Man
-Assembly issues "Declaration of the Rights of Man."
-Oct. 5-6, 1789-

King Louis XVI brought to Paris
-King Louis XVI brought from Versailles to Tuileries palace in Paris
-July 12, 1790-

Civil Constitution of the Clergy
-Assembly issues "Civil Constitution of the Clergy," requiring elections and oaths
-June 20-21, 1791-

King flees & is caught
-King flees to Austria, is caught at Varennes
-Aug. 27, 1791-

Declaration of Pillnitz
-Austria & Prussia call for support of French King
-Sept. 1791-

Constitution & elections
-National Assembly issues Constitution; elections are held
Legislative Assembly: October 1791-August 1792
-Constitutional govt. by elected officials
-Apr. 20, 1792-

France declares war
...on Austria & Prussia
-Aug. 10, 1792-
-Paris mob storms Assembly
-Commune siezes Assembly
-Legislative Assembly falls
-Minister of justice Danton purges thousands of presumed traitors
-Sept. 20, 1792-

French army stops Prussians & Austrians
...@ Valmy (Belgium)
National Convention: Sept. 1792-1795
-elected by universal male suffrage to rewrite constitution
-Sept. 21, 1792-

Abolishes monarchy & declares France a Rep.
-Convention abolishes monarchy & declares France a Rep.
-Oct. 1792-

Rev. calendar
-Revolutionary calendar introduced; Sept. 22, 1792, day 1.
-Jan. 21, 1793-

King is executed
-Convention condemns & executes the King
-Feb. 1793-

Convention declares war
-Convention declares war on 1st coalition of Austria, Prussia, Britain, Holland, and Spain.
-Feb. 1793-

Counter-revolutionary revolt
-Counter-revolutionary revolt in the "Vendee" begins
-March 1793-

Reign of Terror
...by Commitee of Public Safety (Robespierre) begins
-Aug. 23, 1793-

Levy-in-Mass
-"Levy-in-Mass," (military draft) instituted
-Fall 1793-
-Price controls, de-Christianization, administrative reform
-Apr. 4, 1794-

Danton executed
-Danton executed
-June 26, 1794-

French victory
...over Austrians at Fleurus (Belgium)
-July 28, 1794-

"Thermidor"
-Robespierre executed, end of terror
-Feb. 21, 1795-

Churches reopened
-Churches reopened
-Aug. 22, 1795-

New Constitution adopted
-New constitution is adopted, forming the Directory
Directory: 1795-1799
-New Constitution has 2 houses: Council of Ancients and Council of 500
-Oct. 5, 1795-

"Whiff of Grapeshot" saved directory
-Napoleon's "Whiff of Grapeshot," saved the Directory from a royalist mob
-Sept. 4, 1797-

Coup d' état removes royalists from Directory
-Coup d' état removes royalists from Directory
-Oct. 17, 1797-

French defeat Austrians
...in Northern Italy & make peace
-1798-

French capture and are defeated
-French capture Switzerland, Rome, & Naples; suffer bad defeat in Egypt (Aug.1)
-Spring 1799-

2nd coalitions drive French army back
-2nd coalitin of Austria, Russia, Turkey, and Great Britain drive French army back
-Nov. 9, 1799-

coup d' état abolishes Directory & establishes Consulate
-Napoleon's coup d' état abolishes Directory & establishes Consulate
Consulate: 1799-1804
-Constitution of 1800 has executive of 3 consuls
-1801-1802-

Napoleon makes peace
...w/ Austria & Britain , Concordant w/ the pope
-1803-

Renewed war w/ Britain
-Renewed war w/ Britain
-1804-

Napoleonic Code
...promulgated
Empire: 1804-1815
-Napoleon crowns himself emperor
-1805-

3rd coalition moves against France
-3rd coalition (Austria, Britain, & Russia) moves against France
-1805-1809-

French victories, Reps., Spain resists
-French victories
-"Republics" set up throughout Europe
-Spain resists
-1812-

Major defeat in Russia
-Napoleon suffers major defeat in Russia (40,000 of 611,000 survive)
-1814-

France is defeated; Napoleon sent to Elba
-Austria, Britain, Prussia, & Russia defeat France
-Napoleon sent to Elba
-Mar. 1815-

Napoleon returns to France
...for "100 days"
-June 18, 1815-

Napleon is defeated by British & Prussians; Louis 18th restored
-British & Prussians defeat Napoleon @ Waterloo
-Louis 18th restored