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75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the order of society
1% of population
higher and lower clergy
First Estate
10% tax on income that the higher clergy had to pay
2% of population
Second Estate
made by Louis XVI to show how much money France had
97% of population
Bourgeoisie, peasants, artisans
few political rights
Third Estate
middle class
grandson of Louis XV
wife-Marie Antoinette
Louis XVI
husband-Louis XVI
Marie Antoinette
its all of the estates put together to debate about certain issues
when the king demanded the estates meet seperately
third estate named themselves this and gathered at a nearby tennis court with deputies from other estates that supported their cause
The National Assembly
promising not to disband until they had written a constitution for France
The Tennis Court Oath
the third estate focused on this Paris prison so they could steal weapons to defend themselves
The Bastille
royalists leader who had aided colonists in the American Revolution
Marquis de Lafayette
A radical group who won control of Paris's city government and pushed for an end to the monarchy
Paris Commune
incorporated the idea of Englightenment (stating that all people are equal before the law), freedom of speech, press, and religion, and protected against arbitrary arrest and punishment
Declaration of the Rights of Man
a liberal bishop that backed up the National Assembly
Maurice de Talleyrand
a measure that placed the French church under government control and turned the clergy into elected, salaried officials
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
this constitution kept the monarchy but limited royal powers
Constitution of 1791
one-house assembly whose members were to be chosen by voters
Unicameral legislature
the right to vote
elected delegates were seated by their political beliefs
reactionary royalists-right
radicals wanted republic-left
Legislative Assembly
nobles who had feld France hoped to restore Louis XVI to full power
French emigres
French revolutionary feared that Austria would reinstate Louis so they declared war
French Declaration of War on Austria (1792)
Paris mobs killed imprisoned nobles and priests accused for political crimes
September massacres
victory at Valmy vanished all thoughts of defeat which boosted the spirits of the revolutionaries
the National Assembly ended the monarchy right after the victory of Valmy and made France a republic
French Republic
passed into law a number of democratic reforms and wrote France's first democratic constitution
National Convention
meaning that every man could vote whether or not he owned property
Universal manhood suffrage
convention members replaced the monarchy's confusing system of weights and measures with this which is still used today
Metric system
a killing machine the revolutionaries had adopted as a humane means of execution which was used to killed Louis XVI
Paris's shopkeepers, artisans, and workers
means without breeches
wealthy Parisians addressed each other as this instead of mister or madame
Citizen (citizeness)
supporters of sans-culottes and extreme radicals were called this
formed the Mountain
The Mountain
so called because its members sat on high benches at the rear of the hall
Maximilien Robespierre
one of the leaders of the Mountain which saw itself as the defender of the revolution and the voice of the people
felt that the revolution had gone far enough and wanted to protect the wealthy middle class from radical attacks
The Plain
made up of undecided deputies who were a majority of the Convention
Committee of Public Safety
to direct the entire war effort, adopted the conscription, turned the conflict into the world's first "people's war"
draft, calling up all men between the ages of 18 and 45 for military services, and upon the skills and resources of all civilians
Reign of Terror
the Jacobins set out to crush all opposition within France
Republic of Virtue
the Jacobin-controlled Commitee of Public Safety set this up which meant a democratic republic made up of good citizens
Temples of Reason
radical revolutionaries closed churches or turned them into these, fearing a further loss of support for the revolution among believers
The Directory
the constitution set up this executive council of five men called directors that ruled with a two-house legislature
Napoleon Bonaparte
French military leader who attracted public attention
married-Josephine de Beauharnais
Coup d'etat of 1799
quick seizure of power, Napoleon joined against the Directory in 1799
popular vote
First Consul
the executive branch was a committee of three members called the consuls, Napoleon took first consul and quickly concentrated power into his own hands
secondary schools, that were designed to provide well-educated, patriotic government workers
students mostly from wealthy families
Napoleonic Code
it was based on Enlightenment such as the equality of all citizens before law, religious toleration, and advancement based on merit
Concordat of 1801
Napoleon acknownledged that Catholicism was the religion of the majority of French people but affirmed religious toleration for all
Treaty of Amiens
Napoleon was not able to defeat the British navy, but the British were ready for peace because their commerce had suffered during the war so both powers signed this
Emperor of French
Napoleon named himself this in 1804
Battle of Trafalgar
The British defeated the French navy, removing once and for all the possibility of a French invasion of Great Britain
Lord Nelson
was the admiral person who led the British to defeat the French
Continental System
Napoleon ordered all European nations he had conquered to stop trade with Britain
War of 1812
Between Britain and the US because of the conflict of the seas
Confederation of the Rhine
Napoleon abolished the Holy Roman Empire and created the Confederation of the Rhine, a loose organization of the German states
the yearning for self-rule and restoration of their customs and traditions
Alexander I of Russia
viewed Napoleon's control of Europe a threat to Russia, withdrew from the Continental System and resumed trade with Great Britain
Leipzig (1813)
Russia, Prussia, and Austria defeated Napoleon here
Napoleon's exile in Elba
Louis the XVIII was restored to the throne
Hundred Days
Napoleon again reigned as emperor when he came back from being exiled and got a lot of support from the people
Waterloo (1815)
Napoleon met the armies of Prussia, Great Britain, and the Netherlands because they didnt want him to regain his former strength and France lost making Napoleon go on house arrest where he died
Duke of Wellington
Arthur Wellesley commander of the British troops helped aid the Spaniards who overthrew thier French occupiers
Congress of Vienna
the kings, princes, and diplomats gathered for a peace conference
Prince von Metternich
believed to establish European stability by restoring it to how it was before the French revolution
Buffer states
neutral territories
German Confederation
forms 39 independant German states headed by Austria
people who opposed change and wanted to return things to the way they had been in earlier times
a political philosophy influencing European peoples in the 1800s
supported ideas such as freeom of speech, press, and religion
Quadruple Alliance
Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia formed this to maintain the settlements of Vienna
Holy Alliance
issued by Alexandar I of Russia that called for Christain rulers in Europe to cooperate as a union of monarchs
Concert of Europe
regular meetings that were decided by the two alliances that encouraged European nations to work together to preserve peace
Carlsbad Decrees
imposed strict censorship on all publications and suppressed freedom of speech