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129 Cards in this Set

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Themes of the French Revolution
freedom, equality, constitutional rule, violence, war, conflict, expression
Origins of French Revolution
Realm of spirit of revolution
ideas associated with symbols such as flags
Origins of French Revolution
Revolution not reform
Improving conditions of their lives, focusing on social ascent.
Origins of French Revolution
Revolutionary Mentality
present ideas and then group together to act on them
Origins of French Revolution
French discourse
France a society of orders, bounded hierarchies (born a peasant, die a peasant), static system of social organization
unstable society; open rules,
social, political, economic corruption
Origins of French Revolution
Discourse of Revolution
broad sense of need for change,
nature of political authority needed to be addressed,
taxation should be adjusted,
Cultural flux of meanings asks - for representing and analysing - new theoretical and empirical resources
Origins of French Revolution
society
how people relate to one another; hierarchy of social positions
Origins of French Revolution
Groups of French Society
1st estate -clergy
2nd estate -nobility
3rd estate -commons (96% of population)
Origins of French Revolution
1st estate - clergy
French church has large power and priviledge
-registers bith, marriage
-manages deaths
-collects tides(10% of income)/taxes
-sensored books that challenged beliefs.
-ran schools
-took care of the poor, provided them relief
-legal monopoly of public worship
-paid no tax, even when owned land (donation once a year to French government)
Origins of French Revolution
Archbishop of Seville
provided care for poor during 1709 famine in Spain
Origins of French Revolution
1787 change in church money
gov't asked church to set aside rights to pay 5 billion leva.
Origins of French Revolution
hierarchy divisions
constant through clergy, state
noble -> priest, status quo.
peasant -> priest, revolutionary.
no movement between noble clergy and peasant clergy.
Origins of French Revolution
1789
Revolution began
Origins of French Revolution
Cahiers de doleances
list of grievances, prompted from King Louis 16th. May 1789, priests talk about problems with villagers, draw up list (priests-the only educated to write)
-supported poor against unfair taxes
-free house of charity established for children
Origins of French Revolution
contribution to Napolean Bonaparts rising to power
poor in countryside rose up against revolution because gov't started to kill priests taking list of grievances.
Origins of French Revolution
absolutism
extend power in such a way that they control interest of people
-jived with catholic church understanding of static order.
Origins of French Revolution
Representative of God's children
Kings ruled by divine right, sole advisor of God, resposible to God's children (not to subjects)
Origins of French Revolution
Pyramid structure
Regent-King
Nobility, Clergy
Commoners, 96% of population
Origins of French Revolution
King Louis XVI (r.1774 - 1793)
very religious,
didn't want to be king, commited to family,
wanted to serve in enlightened ways, but lacked capacity to run gov't and put good reforms into effect.
Decapitated.
Origins of French Revolution
Marie Antoinette
wife of King Louis XVI,
German,
gave her a free hand,
shuffling of alliances at gov't top level
corruption - led to paralysis a.institutional b.beurocratic
Origins of French Revolution
How to avert a revolution
Must desire it enough to carry it out yourself, so you can manage its power.
Create reforms as pressure valves, release pressure of leading.
Origins of French Revolution
2nd Estate
Nobility -controlled all high church and gov't offices.
Quality of beurocracy poor because people in positions due to birth rather than ability.
exempt from taxes or used power to evade them - collect money from peasants on their land.
Origins of French Revolution
Karl Marx (on society)
a)3 groups in society will fight
b) priviledged group will be attacked by poor class
c) revolution will occur
PROBLEM: revolutionaries weren't poor, but french nobles who had much in common with elites of third estate
Origins of French Revolution
connection between 2nd and 3rd estate
Elite of 3rd estate had much in common with Nobles.
Important alliance between weaker nobility and notables (commoners who mocked nobility)
Origins of French Revolution
notables
commoners who mocked nobility; active in regional courts - pushed for change in courts. important group in revolution, reform-minded beauristocrats, commercially engaged nobles and upwardly-mobile bourgeois, people who had time to sit around and argue - wanted to be judged on basis of achievements
Origins of French Revolution
nobles of the sword
1st group of nobles
nobles who came from long line of nobles
Origins of French Revolution
nobles of the robe
2nd group of nobles
individuals made into nobles (by gov't) so leader could have more money and things the way they wanted.
Origins of French Revolution
Notables' change
important group for revolution;
exist on change - but moderate change.
advancement, disgusted with Louis XVI, anxious to expand education and increase literacy, do away with censorship, allow uninhibited exchange of ideas(compelled by enlightenment)
Origins of French Revolution
Connection between Enlightenment and French Revolution
enlightenment influenced uninhibited exchange of ideas, a change French Notables were working toward
Origins of French Revolution
Issac Newton 1687
most important work -"Principia Mathematica"
This generated considerable excitement among most
educated Europe
Origins of French Revolution
Principia Mathematica
a)argued that material world was stable, predictable, governed by universally applicable laws. (NOT BY MAGIC)
b)there is rationality in universe, patterns through critical thinking
c) reason of natural world - if we can discover principals about human world, we can change that too.
Origins of French Revolution
connection between science and enlightenment
has to do with change from natural reality to human reality.
Newtonian science foundational to understanding!
Origins of French Revolution
Philosophe
moderate and radical
ex: Voltaire, Franklin, Kant, Wollstonecraft
1. believed in Newtonian science, math
-world understandable through science
2. clergy needs to go
-no rule by religious dogma
3. everyone worship the way they want
4. Freedom of the press
5. Willing to entertain heresies (like athiests, evolution)
6. Bible isn't literal word of God.
Origins of French Revolution
Marie-Jean Caritat, marquis de Condorcet (1743-1794)
Progress of the Human Mind - nine stages of human progress, tenth to be perfection.
Origins of French Revolution
Propoganda of philosophe
Philosophes had money, used much propaganda to create and audience interested in what they had to say, audience promotes their popularity.
Origins of French Revolution
philosophe and beliefs
helped to shape modern beliefs in tolerance, human rights, free speech
-aimed discourse at monarchical absolutism
Origins of French Revolution
public sphere
zone for social life, outside family, unattached to church.
not free in France, but Philosophes efforts helped promote the free sphere today.
Origins of French Revolution
coffee houses
public spheres where radical ideas developed.
modern age, political violence
Origins of French Revolution
Voltaire
philosophe that popularized ideas of the enlightenment, hated religious intolerance, good monarch - humans rarely worthy to govern themselves, against equality among servants and masters
Origins of French Revolution
Candide
by Voltaire
satirical, clergy suspicious
Origins of French Revolution
Montesquieu
philosophe that promoted separation of powers, so executive doesn't run amok.
Origins of French Revolution
Rousseau
philosophe that wrote social contract theory similar to Locke. people choose own gov't, give birth to civil society. the people are the -general will_ that should guide officials in how they govern
to be human = to be free
Origins of French Revolution
Locke
Philosophe with contract theory that originally promoted rebellion against unworthy ruler.
Origins of French Revolution
vocab of philosophe theories
theories of philosophes provide important vocab that revolutionaries could draw on:
despotism, tyrany, arbitrary power, immutable laws
Origins of French Revolution
Parlements
regional courts
Origins of French Revolution
1713
parlement (judicial courts) in Paris declared: not flock who must obey shepherd, but shepherd who must conform to flock's will
Origins of French Revolution
18th century -clash between Kings and Parlement
Kings wanted to be obeyed, while parlement said shepherds must conform to flocks
Origins of French Revolution
Waterloo theme
War is glorious, what modern warfare was going to apply to human bodies
Moderate Revolution
Discourse
ideas you're confronted with: language, environment.
shaped the way people lived.
A necessary precondition for Revolution.
Moderate Revolution
Common discourses
-power shouldn't be arbitrary (no king)
-power should be limited by branches
-Catholic church powered needed check (main wealth)
-religious liberty ought to be established in law
-institutions need to be more rational
-what reason recommends as "right and valid" ought to be the measure for every aspect of French life.
Moderate Revolution
general will impact on French nation
led to positive development toward popular sovereignty draft
Moderate Revolution
3rd estate contributions to revolution - chief claims of discourse
-poor wanted access to cheep food
-wanted to be equal and free
-wanted destruction of rank and priviledge of Nobility
-wanted sovereignty to reside in all people, not just rich
-wanted voices to count equally
-wanted every citizen to be guaranteed food -gov't provide welfare to poor
-wanted redistribution of wealth -give land to poor
-private property shouldn't be absolute -tax rich, give to poor.
-gov't responsibility to guarantee happiness.
Moderate Revolution
Martin Luther
crush peasants when they rise up
Moderate Revolution
discourse / ideas need:
movement/action
Moderate Revolution
movement that started Revolution
Collapse of French economy, which was tied closely to problems with gov't structure: heavy beaurocratized absolutist state
Moderate Revolution
Problems with French gov't
1. inadequate staffing -positions in state office through paying money or family name
2. Tariffs on out of state products -interstate commerce created artificial rises in price of products, slows economic growth
3. different weights and measures in country -problems transferring goods
4. exploitative business practices
5. Five different dialects - language/communication problems
6. no single law code -roman law in south, feudal law in north
7. gov't difficulty raising taxes, couldn't pay off its debt
Moderate Revolution
French Gov't debts
-Seven Years War
-American Revolution (provided resources for colonists against British.
Moderate Revolution
French gov't money source
extract money from poor, peasantry
Moderate Revolution
21 million
peasants in rural France, most lived in poverty, illiterate, couldn't make enough farming -worked two jobs, not enough
Moderate Revolution
Population increase
late 18th century.
1. weather
2. science
3. per capita of food stronger
-more food = earlier menstration, more babies
Moderate Revolution
problems with population increase
tough on small land owners, competition for limited resources
Moderate Revolution
many taxes on peasants
taille - cut of income to church
capitation - head tax
vingtieme -
banalities - fees to land lord (caused by sale of land to other land lords)
gabelle -salt tax, gov't monopoly of salt
landlord attempt to monopolize alcohol
Moderate Revolution
cause of taxes
by end of 18th century, high misery of French peasantry, run away inflation on basic commodities -drove many into poverty
Moderate Revolution
1788-89
poor harvest, misery grew, starvation tempted rebellion
Moderate Revolution
1785-1789
cost of living in Paris increased 62%
wages increased only 22%
Urban poor included craftsmen, deliverymen -people paid by those they served.
moderate revolution
King's plan to resolve financial crisis
stamp tax, annual produce of soil tax (with nobles' approval)
moderate revolution
May 1789
proposed Paris meeting date to discuss cahiers de doleances with estates general
Moderate Revolution
1614
last time estates general met
Moderate Revolution
Nobels response to Kings financial crisis solution
King needed nobles support, requested meeting of estates general, requested monarchy abdicate arbitrary authority to arrest
Moderate Revolution
problem with list of grievances
list direct and clear, created in a way French could not fix. French population excited because they thought problems would be fixed, went crazy when they weren't.
Moderate Revolution
Estates general voting style
clergy, nobility, commons
each group gets one vote
clergy and nobility usually agreed, so it was two to one, so commoners wanted to vote as individuals rather than by orders. Wanted reps of third party to be doubled because 96% of population is commoners.
Moderate Revolution
estates general results
reformist minded members figured the reformist minded nobles would help the 3rd estate, they didn't. Clergy and nobles voted against revolt, so third estate walked out, formed own assembly.
Moderate Revolution
June 17, 1789
3rd estate formed own assembly called National Assembly, declared estates general nol and void. own community, make decisions for themselves
Moderate Revolution
bureaucrat
fixed routine without exercising intelligent judgment
Moderate Revolution
Upper class response to formation of National Assembly
Kings and Reps didn't like National Assembly, so they locked doors to meeting hall.
Moderate Revolution
June 20, 1789
National Assembly met in a tennis court (because meeting hall locked) and took an oath not to disband until they had written a new constitution
Moderate Revolution
Tennis court oath impact
France on threshhold of social revolution, ruin status of current power
Moderate Revolution
July 14, 1789
mobs frustrated, no food, needed weapons, stormed Bastille
Governor orders guards to fire on crowd, 98 killed, 98 wounded. Crowd aim cannon at door of Bastille. Governor and 5 hacked to death, heads paraded on pipes through city
Moderate Revolution
National Assembly Constitution
limit kings power
Moderate Revolution
The Great Fear
burned the whole manor to get rid of recorded debt
Moderate Revolution
Aug 4, 1789
King recognized National Assembly
-destroy feudalism to deal with problem
-duties/fees peasants had to pay now gone
-noble hunting priviledge now gone
-lost right to demand labor services
-no more sales of state offices
-adapted declaration of rights of man
Moderate Revolution
Declaration of rights of man
1. men born and remain free and equal
2. right of liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression
3. sovereignty resides in the nation
4. law is expression of general will
5. free communication of ideas
6. common contributions to gov't, equally distributed
Moderate Revolution
Constitution of 1791
French gov't Constitution (limited) monarchy (like British)
-all citizens possess same civil rights
-had money/property, paid taxes and voted
-didn't have property, didn't vote
-king stripped of legislative authority
-loses control of army
-loses control of local gov't
-ended Royal absolutism
-revented mass of French citizens from gaining control of their gov't
Moderate Revolution
Oct 5, 1789
Parisian women revolt for bread at Versaille, accompanied by National Guard
-when women revolt, you know oppression is high
Moderate Revolution
Summer 1792
Second Revolution
Notables fell from power, replaced by Jacobins because 1. lower classes not helped by revolution -no vote and no political power -economic problem -uncontrolled inflation
Moderate Revolution
Summer 1791
2. fatal mistake by king "I am no longer King, but a puppet of assembly". king escapes, tries to cross French border to Austria to raise army and invade own country _ TREASON, gets caught, he and family return to Paris until trial
Moderate Revolution
conflict with all Europe
3. other countries in Europe didn't like what was going on in France, in order to prevent this change in own countries, attempted to destroy them in the mother country (france)
Moderate Revolution
4 reasons contours of revolution lay in doubt
1. disatisfaction of revolutionary governments
2. treason of the king
3. 25 years of unremitting conflict on continent
4. Rise of Jacobins -radical revolutionaries, willing to kill for their beliefs
Radical Revolution
Jacobins
radical revolutionaries, willing to kill for their beliefs
Radical Revolution
1789-1799
Revolutionary Decade
Radical Revolution
extent to which political power should be distributed
Notables elites placed king on defense. Notables dismantled feudal order. Notables crank open French society.
Radical Revolution
bourgeoisie
middle class, new elite, doesn't help more than other elites
Radical Revolution
sans-culottes
trousers instead of knee britches. laboring poor and petty traders in cities.
capable of commiting shocking acts of revolutionary violence
Radical Revolution
discontent of sans-culotte
connected to their perceived access of food, demanded cheep food!
you could get food if you had cash, so sans culotte requested: 1. raise minimum wage 2. gov't set max prices 3. find/punish food hoarders
Radical Revolution
urban food crisis
high cost of foods
acute shortages of uncontrolled goods like cooking oil
black marketeering, food adulteration -paint rotten fish, add sawdust to grain
men and women acted on impulses to get food to live.
Radical Revolution
what women fought for
official state persecution of church, riot about food to feed babies
Radical Revolution
Jacobins
representatives of Sans-culottes, democratic rhetoric of egalitarian fraternity, masking the established new class of elites that wanted to take advantage of the low class again!
Radical Revolution
storming of Paris prison
so prisoners and aristocrats might fight on their side. inmates (including innocents) killed. One -Princess Mademoiselle de Lamballe, mutilated, head paraded.
Jacobins took advantage of this chaos.
Radical Revolution
Federalists
worry about radical central gov't
Radical Revolution
Girondin
Federalists, right side, no longer popular political Jacobin party, use coercive force of state to aid Revolution
Radical Revolution
carte de surete
required to prove ones loyalty to revolution
Radical Revolution
Mountain
upper left conservatives
Radical Revolution
National Convention
intended to impose Jacobin reforms
Jacobins knew poor and sans culotte their allies, but needed to control them
Radical Revolution
Jacobin accomplishments
-distribute land among more than just nobles
-passed constitution of 1793
-bill of rights 1789
-all adult males right to vote, not just rich
-no more slavery
-no more imprisonment for debts
-free public education
Radical Revolution
schools
churches attacked, churches own schools, many schools shut down, so Jacobins set up alternative schooling
-father to eldest son, -metric system -robust religion policy...disaster for French revolution
Radical Revolution
biens nationaux
seizure of national goods
religious policy
stole gov't property and sold it
Radical Revolution
1790 civil constitution of clergy
all priests had to take oath of loyalty to the state, negative impact because many priests wouldn't, refusal = imprisonment and torture
Radical Revolution
dechristianization
kick priests and nuns out, force them to marry, no catholicism, religion is farce, do away with liturgical calendar, deface christian iconography, melt church bells, strip church of valuables
Radical Revolution
counter-revolution
provoked by dechristianization, poor, faithful Catholics unhappy, hacked down liberty tree, demanded return of church bells, grew violent
Radical Revolution
violent counter-revolution acts
Jacobins started killing priests and nuns, so poor rose up in revolt
-this drained resources, plunged revolution into peril
Radical Revolution
Europe vs. France
gov't facing array of foreign invaders, Europe horrified by Jacobins in France
Radical Revolution
April 1792
France declares war on Austria. French army poorly led.
Radical Revolution
20 sept, 1792
Battle of Valmy
Gov't got lucky when army stiffend and successfully stopped invaders
Radical Revolution
Levee en Masse
everyone has a job in war agains Europe
able-bodied men - drafted
women - sew, make tents, uniforms, bandage
children - serve in army, make bullets
old men - distribute propoganda
Radical Revolution
70 million
non combatants died in Europe
Radical Revolution
The Terror
National committee delegated responsibility to several individuals of committee called Public safety. Robespierre, leader. originally high integrity "the incorruptable", by end guilty of mass murder
Radical Revolution
Marat
stabbed to death in tub
Radical Revolution
April 1794
danton killed for statement "terror out of hand"
Radical Revolution
July 28, 1794
Robespierre guillotined
Radical Revolution
special courts
quick tribunals that ended in deathused by Jacobins to try suspects in a way that was intended to impress communities, executions in public to terrorize people to fall in line
Radical Revolution
40 thousand
perished during the terror, including Louis 16th and wife marie antoinette
Radical Revolution
characteristic features of modern identity
fear of religious radicalism, become secularists in public life, public demonstrations of religion threatened, led to inquisition
Radical Revolution
5-6 thousand
died in Spanish inquisition
Radical Revolution
8 thousand
number killed during 350 years of Catholic inquisitions
Radical Revolution
number killed during catholic inquisitions * 5
40 thousand killed in french terror in 40 years
Radical Revolution
Jacobins saved French Revolution with Terror
-crushed counter-revolution
-crusted federalists
Radical revolution
1789-1791
Thermadorians, calendar month changes
Radical revolution
1794
robespierre fell, Frenchmen "Jacobin republic needs to go", end popular battle, hammer to Sans culotte
Radical revolution
Napolean Bonapart
1799 ideas of equality/freedom, not what revolutionists had in mind
Radical revolution