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48 Cards in this Set

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what are some of the financial problems that caused the French revolution?
1)Louis XV's fails to raise taxes. The Parlement of Paris blocks his moves (judicial review)
2)the support Fr. gave the US was funded by loans which raised the debt and the deficit
3)they were defeated in the 7 yrs war.
4)nobility were tax-exempt& didnt want that to change
what benefits did the clergy and the nobility have over the third estate?
1) clergy owned abt 10% of the land. Its tithe on ppl who owned land was less than 10%.
2) The nobility owned 25% of the land.
3)commons could buy a noble status but they had to be really rich
Why did Louis call the estates assembly in 1787?
In 1787 Louis XV called the estates assembly becuz the nobles refused to pay taxes. They said the only way they would pay taxes was if the Estates General voted that it was ok
What significane did Emmanual Joseph Sieyes have in 1789
he thought that voting rights were unfair since the nobles and clergy could use their voting power agaist the Third Estate. Hence, he wrote What is the Third Estate in 1789. He said that the third estate was the true strength of the nation since they outnumbed the nobles who were a minority
Finally, the Thirdd estate refused to deal with the ridiculous voting arrangements so they decided to form what in 1789?
The third estate formed the National Assembly with the support of the poor parish clergymen. However, they were kicked out so they went to the tennis court and swore they wouldn't disband until they had written a constitution.
ok there were rumors flying around that King Louis was going to eliminate all the rebels. So what did the French do to protect themselves? What place did they storm?
The revolt in the city was the result of bad harvests and rumoors of an army sent by the king to kill the ppl. so they searched for arms to defend themselves with. This is why on July 14, 1789 they stormed the Bastile.
The storming of the bastille was the revolt of the city so what was the revolt in the country and what was it called?
The Great Fear took place in 1789.The 1780s was a time of bad harvests& they had to pay high taxes so they were pretty pissed. This is why they went after the nobility and robbed them or set their homes on fire. They also destroyed any evidence of their manorial obligations.
What was done to ease the anger of the peasants who caused the Great fear?
On August 4 of 1789 the aristocrats of the National assembly decide that the only way to stop all the craziness is to abolish serfdom.
What declaration was issued on August 27, 1789? and who helped Lafayette write it?
On August 27,1789 The declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen was issued. T. Jefferson helped him write it.
1) all citizens are equal b4 the law
2)men are born and remain free and are equal in rights.
On October 5, 1789 Louis XVI is forced by women to go to paris why?
On october 5,1789 a lot of women were angry that their families were starving so they took him to paris where the could keep an eye on him.
what was done to facilitate the complicated process of the numerous departments?
There departments were reduced to 83 provinces
what was done to promote economic freedom
banish guilds and trade barriers w/in france
In 1790 the king was forced to accept the civil constitution and it upset many clergymen. What was it that this constiution changed?
1)the church became a department of state
2)clergy were civil servants to be paid
3)had to swear an oath of loyalty to the Frnech state and uphold the Civil Constitution
The constitution passed in 1791 did what?
The constitution of 1791 created a constitutional monarchy.
-it created a NEW legislative
assembly
-fearing stupid ppl the framers of the constitution said that men could only vote if they had poverty and men who wanted a job with power had to have even higher requirements
Who wrote the Rights of Women in 1791?
In 1791 The Rights of Women by Olympes de Gouges was written. She said that women should also enjoy fundamental rights such as, education, right to control property and the right to divorce.
Who was Mary Wollstonecraft and what book did she publish in 1790 that is a rebuttal to A Vindication of the Rights of man?
In 1790 Mary Wollstonecraft published A Vindication of the Rights of women.
1)argued that coeducation was needed to make women better wis and mothers
2) thought both sexes mutually corrupt each other
In June of 1791 Louis XVI and his wife Marie Antoinette are caught sneaking out of the country. This resulted in Austria and Prussia issuing the Declaration of_______
The Declaration of pilnitz was issued in response to their concern that monarch rule was threatened. Hence, they cautioned the rebels to treat the rulers with care or else they would intervene to save Louis XVI and his wife. This made Paris tense and allowed for the creation of a radical govt.
Reflections on the Revolution of France was published in 1790 and written by the British _________ __________
Edmund Burke wrote Reflections of the Revolution of France. This book was his defense of conservatism and aristocratic privileges. He differed from many of his contemporaries by saying that the current reforms in France would cause chaos. he thought that gradual change was more effective
In 1792 France declared war on_________. what country did they declare war on? why? what happened?
In 1782 France decalred war on Francis II, the Habsburg Monarch. Initially, every1 felt confident abt beating Austria and spreading their revolutionary ideas. However, Prussia joined the fight and the war started to go badly for France.
what is important abt the Tuileries??
On august 10 1792 the Tulieres was attacked by a revolutionary crowd. They imprisoned the king after he tried to runaway.
how did the new National Convention come about?
The PAris Commune forced the Natioal assembly in September to vote as to whether there should be a new legislative assembly w/universal male suffrage. The new National Convention was given the job of writing up a new constitution.
Describe the Girondins
5
1)conservative
2)limit franchise
3)exile king
4)liked laissez faire
5)wanted local rule
Describe Jacobins
5
1)radical
2)universal male suffrage
3)govt. controls economy
4)centralized government
5)kill king
before Louis XVI is killed what happens to France?
IT turns into a Republic on Sept. 21, 1792
what was a major turn in the death of Louis XVI
his death was comparable, perhaps, to going to the theater. Instead of being shocked that he was killed ppl were glad. Also the National Convention voted for his death (narrow margin sentenced him to death)
How do the Jacobins gain power?
1)well, the Girondists start to lose face when a Girondist, General Dumouriez, joins the Austrians and betrays france. They are also perceived as being indifferent towards the ppl in general. and most importantly the Jacobins gained power when the sans-culottes take over the convention and demand that the Girondins leave or else....
In what ways did the committee of Public Safety and Robespierre institute a planned economy?
1)There was a maximum price for certain key products
2)The price of bread was changed so that the poor could afford it
3)the poor hadd to work to produce arms and muintion for the war
4)there were nationalized or government controlled workshops
5)White bread and pastries were outlawed luxuries
The government regulated economy and the levee en masse aided the French in beating up the Austrians and PRussians. What is the Levee en masse?
The levee en masse was when Lazare Carnot, head of the military issued a national draft. this was the first time all citizens were called on to serve their country.
what was the Reign of Terror like?
Well Robespierre went on a killing spree. and altho he had used the terror to help in winning the war he continued to use it even after it was done. He wanted an ideal democratic republic with ppl that were neither rich or poor. The guillotine became a symbol of this age.
how did the reign of terror end?
Danton and his followers were murdered for arguing that the terror should end. This resulted in his survivors getting together with other members of the convention and they ganged up on Robespierre.
what replaced the Paris commune and the Committee of Public Safety?
The directory replaced these two. It consisted of 5 men who held the position of director. The new constitution provided for a two- house legislature made up by the Ancients who talked abt legislation proposed by the second house, the Counci of Five Hundred.
-only ppl who owned property could vote
Napoleon was a minor noble and would have remained so if it hadnt been for the revolution. how did he became the king of the military?
The directory wanted to hide all the crap that was going at home with military victories. Sot hey sent Napoleon to Italy where he destroyed the combined forces of Austria and Sardinia. however he screwed in Egypt but no one really cared
why is Admiral Horatio Nelson an important man to the British?
Nelson was an awesome British man who defeated the Frnech fleet on August 1, 1798. he also beat up his fleet again at the battle of Trafalgar which proved British dominance of the sea for that century.
Why did Napoleon even tr to overthrow the Directory?
In 1799 Napoleon was able to get rid of the Directory since he knew that ppl were upset at having a weak dictatorship. Sieyes agreed there needed to be a stronger power. So he figured that if Napoleon would be a weak figurehead that could be manipulated easily. he was wrong.
how was Napoleon voted in every single time?
He granted universal male suffrage in france. He then set up a plebiscite or a vote by the ppl. They then voted for the constitution that made him first consul
what was the concordat of 1801 about?
This was a reconciliation between the church and France.
1)papacy could select bishops if he wanted
2) state would pay the clergy men
3)church would stop claiming lands taken from them during the revolution
4)napoleon got rid of the 10 day calender
what was the civil code of 1804?
This reaffirmed that all male citiens were equal befor ethe law and that their wealth and private property was secured.
-male dominated society was reaffirmed
- one single code for all of france
what did the Treaty of Luneville do:?
In 1801 Austria had to give itself up to Napoleon since they refused to make peace and remove themselves from the SEcond coalition
why did he declare war on Britain?
he wanted to restrict British trade with all of europe.
The Third Coalition consisted of who?
R-A-G
russia
austria
Great Britain
what happened at the battle of austerlitz in 1805
the russians and the austrians were beat up by the french by land. Hence, the french proved they were the best on land fighters
After seeing all these strong ppl lose to the French what did the Prussians do?
Well, they were scared so they signed the Treaties of Tilsit. In these they lost alot of their population. Their sized was abt half of what it used to be. They were force to agree to being a french ally
what was the continental system?
this was a big mistake. Napoleon tried to wage economic war on the British since he couldnt beat their navy. well, he ended up hurting the economy of France and its conquered estates
what are 3 reasons for Napoleon being defeated?
1)war in the peninsula
2)rising nationalism in Germany
3)failed invasion of Russia
when was the first great rebellion and why?
The spanish rebelled when Napoleon tried to dominate them. He thought that he would be able to control since Ferdinand VII was a weak ruler. Well, the guerrila tactics of Spanish patriots and the secret aid the British sent the spanish proved him wrong.
So what if Napoleon couldnt beat Russia?? How could this have affected him so greatly?
ok the guy went in with his 600,000 Grand army. Unfortunately, he did not make the planned stop at Smolensk. And the Russians were smart enuf to burn crops as they retreated so the French couldnt use em'. Then at the Battle of Borodino there was a draw. Napoleon was scared so he ordered a retreat. He lost 370,000 men and had 200,000 taken prisoners. on top of this he refused Metternich's proposal (which would have kept him power) but would have forced him to give up some land. Then Prussia and Russia deserted him as a result.
the congress of vienna
bourbon monarchs resrotred
-congress dominated by Vienna
-napoleon given an army to play with
-reverse changes caused by the revolution
-kingdom of netherlands created by combining Dutch land w/the Austrian netherlands to the South. Prussia given land along the Rhine river
hundred days
MArch 1815
-nap escapes and builds up and army
-Louis XVIII runs away
-show down at wterloo
-nap sent to St. helena