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59 Cards in this Set

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How was Napoleon able to claim legitimacy as emperor?
He said that the people voted for him.
They did, by a plebscite.
Congress of Vienna
Called after Napoleon's defeat to restore peace and the strength of the monarchy in Europe.

Map was redrawn, with countries added around France to keep it in line.
Nationalism
Pride in one's own country.
First Estate
The clergy.

Paid no taxes and received many benefits.
Who was Napoleon Bonaparte?
Born in Corsica.

Was a lieutenant who quickly went through the ranks.

Overthrew Directory and set up 3-person Consulate.

Became First Consul.

Became First Consul for life.

Held a plebiscite and was voted Emperor.

Exiled to Elba.

Returned and fought and lost at the Battle of Waterloo.

Exiled to St. Helena, where he died.
Deficit Spending
When the government spends more than its intake.
Rights Women Gained from the Revolution
Allowed to inheriut property.

When Napoleon came, most rights got taken away.
Estate system problem
In the Class system using estates none could better themselves to get into a different class.
Plebiscite
A ballot.
What was the issue of voting for the Estates General?
The third estate wanted to vote by head, not by estate, because they would be outnumbered.
Secular
Not relating to religion.
Second Estate
Nobility

Paid no taxes and received many benefits, among them government, army, court, and Church Positions.
Prince Von Metternich
From Austria.

Was a big part of the Congress of Vienna.
July 14, 1789
Bastille Day
Marie Antoinette
Wife of Louis 16.

Lived Richly (Let them eat cake).
Third Estate
The rest, the highest being the bourgeoisie and including wealthy and poor.

Other members of the third estate include the urban workers, apprentices, farm workers.

The third estate paid the taxes.
Duke of Wellington
Leader of the British forces at Waterloo.

Had the cunning to anticipate Napoleon's movements by studying earlier battles.
What does Bastille Day commerate?
When 800 French citizens who resided in Paris took weapons and attacked the Bastille.
They broke through and freed its few prisoners and got the weaponry there.
Abdicate
To give up an office.

Napoleon abdicated his position and was exiled to Elba, only to return.
Bourgeoisie
Middle Class

The highest members of the third estate.

Included among others lawyers, doctors, bankers, and merchants
Guerrilla Warfare
A sneaky hit and run type warfare technique.

Commonly used nowadays, seldom used then.

The Spanish used it against Naspoleon's forces.
Cahiers
list of grievances

also requested some reforms
Republic
Government where the people choose their leaders.
Opinion of the Third Estate
In resentment of the Royals, First and Second Estate and all the benefits they got and their wealth.
Quadruple Alliance
The wartime and post-wartime alliance of Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria.

Meant to keep the peace and keep the monarchy in existence.
What did the women do on Versailles?
They marched to show that they were upset with the King and Marie Antoinette and their lavish lifestyle.
Emigre
Person who leaves their country for political reasons.
What does Bastille Day commerate?
When 800 French citizens who resided in Paris took weapons and attacked the Bastille.
They broke through and freed its few prisoners and got the weaponry there.
Scorched Earth Policy
Adopted by the Russians.

Burn and Pillage enemy as you move along, leaving them poor.
Reign of Terror/The Terror
Period of time when the revolutionaries executed many of the first and second estates.
Annex
To add a territory to your own land (dealing w/ countries).
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Was issued in 1790.

Church was under state power.

Clergy members were now elected.

Papal authority in the French Church ended.

Many disliked the constitution.
La Marseillaise
A revolutionary song meant to stir up emotions to want to defend their country.

Later became the National Anthem.
Tennis Court Oath
National Assembly found there meeting place locked.
They moved the meeting to an indoor tennis court and took an oath that they would never disband until they had written a good constitution.
Meritocracy
Judging based on merit.

Napoleon believed in this idea, for example in the promotions or demotions of officers.
Why storm the Bastille?
Because it was in the center of Paris, thus good for attention
National Convention
A new legislative body that replaced the Legislative Assembly.

Voting rights went to all males.

Abolished the monarchy and drew up the constitutin for a new French Republic.
Faction
A small group (have same beliefs etc.)
Marie Louise
Napoleon's second wife, a Austrian princess.

This way he and his family could be involved in European Royalty and maybe inherit the throne.
How did other countries react to the French Revolution?
Badly.

They increased border patrol, banned French work and ideas.

They were afraid that their monarchies were in danger because what the French people were doing might inspire their own citizens.
Napoleonic Code
The law code made by Napoleon.

It incorporated many Enlightenment Ideas.
Estates General
Called to decide how to solve the problem of France's debt

First the Estates wrote Cahiers.

When they met, there were problems deciding how to vote.
Danton
Helped turn France into a Republic.

Helped with the Reign of Terror but eventually was a victim of it.
tri-color
Symbol of the Revolution

red-blood
white-France's past
blue-France's future
Nepotism
A procedure used often by Napoleon, it is putting your family and friends into jobs.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Attempt to writing a constitution.

Reminiscent of Locke and the Declaration of Independence.
Guillotine
Machine invented by Dr. Guillotin.

Chops people's heads.

Was used during the Terror to chop of the heads of the first and second estates.
Louis XVI
Called the Estates General
Causers of the French Revolution
Enlightenment views started to get others to question the system.

Louis XIV and the Nobility's excessive spending.

Deficit Spending
Constitution of 1791
Started limited Monarchy.

A legislative assembly that made laws was created and the representatives were elected.

The provinces were redrawn.
Suffrage
Right to Vote
What did the third estate do about the voting issue?
They decide to start the National Assembly.

They then invited other estates to bring delegation and they would write a constitution.
sans-culottes
A faction comprised of the working class who asked that France be changed further into a Republic.
Robespierre
Lawyer and Politician.

Leader in the Committee and also helped to plan the Reign of Terror.
What was the Great Fear?
When hyped rumors were spread, scaring peasants and causing them to disregard noble's orders.
How did the Royal Family React to the National Assembly and New Constitution?
They tried to escape but failed.
Committee of Public Safety
Had 12 people.

They got France ready for war and soon France was invading other countries.
Directory
Was 5 people.

Weak and Corrupt.
Jacobins
The most radical faction.

Comprised of intelligent middle class, they also hoped for a republic.