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338 Cards in this Set

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Present tense of -er verbs
trover: to find
je trouve
tu trouve
tu trouves
il (m), elle (f) trouves
on trouve
nous trouvons
vous trouvez
ils (m), elles, (f) trouvent
When the precede verbs, le, la, les are ______ not ______.
pronouns; articles
Du is the contraction of ___ + ___.
Des is the contraction of ____ + ____.
de; le
de; les
dans
in, into
sur
on
par
by, through
parmi
among
entre
between
pendant
during, for
avec
with
Conjugation of etre, present tense
je suis
tu es
il est
elle est
on est
nous sommes
vous etes
ils sont
elles sont
ce sont
c'est
it is, she is, he is
etre en train de
to be in the process of
etre au courant de
to be aware of
etre d'accord avec
to be in aggreement with
conjugation of avoir, present tense
j'ai
tu as
il a
nous avons
vous avez
ils ont
il y a
there is
avoir faim
to be hungry
avoir soif
to be thirsty
avoir chaud
to be warm
avoir froid
to be cold
avoir sommeil
to be sleepy
avoir peur de
to be afraid of
avoir besoin de
to be in need of
avoir raison
to be right
avoir tort
to be wrong
ne...pas
not
tant
so many, so much
assez de clarte
vs.
une idee assez claire
enough clarity
vs.
a quite clear idea
moins de theories
vs.
moins d'eau
vs.
une etude moins theorique
fewer theories
vs.
less water
vs.
a less theoretical idea
beaucoup d'astronomes
vs.
beaucoup d'energie
vs.
un livre beaucoup trop difficile
many astronomers
vs.
much energy
vs.
much too difficult a book
bien des hommes intelligents
vs.
un homme bien intelligent
many intelligent men
vs.
a very intelligent man
plusieurs
several
quelques
some (a few)
la plupart du temps
vs.
la plupart des hommes
most of the time
vs.
most of the men, most men
un peu (de)
a little
peu de
little or few
when peu is used alone before an adjective, the adjective is translated as...
its opposite
du, de la, de l', des, in addition to "of the" or "from the", means
some, any, (or simply the plural)
my (m, f)
mon, ma
your (m, f)
ton, ta
tes (pl)
his, her, its
son, sa
tes (pl)
our (m, f)
notre, notre
nos (pl)
your (m, f)
votre, votre
vos (pl)
their (m, f)
leur, leur
leurs (pl)
Before feminine nouns beginning with a vowel or an h, we use son or sa? mon or ma? etc?
Use the masculine form (mon, son, etc.)
Nouns ending in -s, -x, or -z have what form for the plural?
Same as singular
Nouns ending in -au or -al have what as their plural?

Also the masculine adjective plural.
end in -aux.
Conjugation of -ir verbs, present tense
finir
je finis
tu finis
il finit
nous finissons
vous finissez
ils finissent
conjugation of -re verbs, present tense
permettre
je permets
tu permets
il permet
nous permettons
vous permettez
ils permettent
-ir verbs like partir, conjugate in the present tense
partir
je pars
tu pars
il part
nous partons
vous partez
ils partent
past participle of -er verbs
-e

like donne (given)
past participle of -ir verbs
-i

like fini (finished)
past participles of -re verbs
-u

like descendu (descended)
past participle of etre
ete
past participle of avoir
eu
past participle of decouvrir
decouvert
past participle of connaitre
connu
past participle of produire
produit
past participle of ecrire
ecrit
How do you form the Past Indefinite Tense for avoir verbs
combination of avoir or etre with the past participle

ex: nous avons agi, we have acted
Past indefinite tense indicates:
1. Action at past moment neither specified or implied
2. Action which took place at a specified or implied moment
Make a past participle into a feminine singular adjective

use donne
donnee
Make a past participle into a feminine plural adjective

use donne
donees
Make a past participle into a masculine plural adjective

use donne
donnes
List of etre verbs
arriver
partir
aller
venir
entrer
sortir
monter
descendre
tomber
mourir
rester
retourner
naitre
When verbs are conjugated with etre, what happens to past participle
gender and number of participle changes to agree with subject
When are apparaitre and disparaitre (appear and disappear) conjugated with avoir vs. etre
avoir: state
etre: action
conjugation of pouvoir, present tense and past participle
je peux (puis)
tu peux
il peut
nous pouvons
vous pouvez
ils peuvent

pu
conjugation of vouloir, present tense and past participle
je veux
tu veux
il veut
nous voulons
vous voulez
ils veulent

voulu
que
direct object in relative clause
or
"that" in 'indirect speech'
past participles in relative clauses agree in gender and number with
preceding direct object
qui
subject of relative clause
faire conjugated in the present tense and past participle
je fais
tu fais
il fait
nous faisons
vous faites
ils font

fait
faire attention a
to pay attention to
faire de son mieux
to do one's best
faire son possible
to do one's best
faire peur a
to frighten
faire plaisir a
to please
0
zero
1
un, une
2
deux
3
trois
4
quatre
5
cinq
6
six
7
sept
8
huit
9
neuf
10
dix
11
onze
12
douze
13
treize
14
quatorze
15
quinze
16
seize
17
dix-sept
18
dix-huit
19
dix-neuf
20
vingt
21
vingt et un
23
vingt-trois
30
trente
31
trente et un
34
trente-quatre
40
quarante
41
quarante et un
47
quarante-sept
50
cinquante
51
cinquante et un
52
cinquante-deux
60
soixante
61
soixante et un
70
soixante-dix
71
soixante et onze
75
soixante-quinze
77
soixante-dix-sept
80
quatre-vingts
81
quatre-vingts-un
88
quatre-vingt-huit
90
quatre-vingt-dix
91
quatre-vingt-onze
99
quatre-vingt-dix-neuf
100
cent
101
cent un
200
deux cents
316
trois cent seize
500
cinq cents
580
cinq cent quatre-vingts
1000
mille
1.001
mille un
3.000
trois mille
100.000
cent mille
1st
premier, premiere
2nd
deuxieme
second, seconde
3rd
troisieme
4th
quatrieme
5th
cinquieme
6th
sixieme
7th
septieme
8th
huitieme
9th
neuvieme
10th
dixieme
11th
onzieme
16
seizieme
17th
dix-septieme
20th
vingtieme
21st
vingt et unieme
34th
trente-quatrieme
100th
centieme
ce, cette, cet (m sing), ces
this, that or these, those
what do you add to nouns with ce etc. to intensify
-ci, -la
What word refers to things previously mentioned (give m, f, sing, pl)
celui (m)
celle (f)
ceux (m, pl)
celles (f, pl)
aussi...que
as...as
plus...que
more (-re)...than
(le, la, les) plus
the most (-est)
celui-ci
the latter
celui-la
the former
present passive is formed how?
with etre + past participle for avoir verbs
past passive is formed how?
with avoir + ete + past participle
savoir, conjugated in the present, and its past participle
je sais
tu sais
il sait
nous savons
vous savez
ils savent

su
uses of meme
before noun: the same
after a noun: (particularizes) 'the very solution'
Elsewhere: even
reflexive verbs us etre or avoir in the past indefinite?
etre
devant
before, in front of
derriere
behind, in back of
en arriere de
behind, backward
a droite de
to the right of
a gauche de
to the left of
au milieu de
in the middle of
au-dessus de
above
au-dessous de
beneath
en face de
opposite, facing
a cote de
beside
au fond de
at the bottom of
au bout de
at the end of
present conjugation of venir
je viens
tu viens
il vient
nous venons
vous venez
ils viennent

venu
words conjugated like venir
contenir
obtenir
retenir
tenir
convenir
prevenir
revenir
parvenir
devenir
provenir
ne...guere
hardly, scarcely
ne...jamais
never
ne...point
not at all
ne...plus
no more, no longer
ne...rien
nothing
ne...personne
nobody, no one
ne...aucun (m), aucune (f)
no, not any
ne...nul, nulle (f)
no, not any
ne...ni...ni
neither...nor...nor
Words where second element of negation are often missing?
pouvoir, savoir, cesser (to cease), oser (to dare)
ne...que
only
ne faire que + infinitive
nothing else to do but...
ne...plus que
no longer
ne...jamais que
never (anything, anybody) except
ne...rien que
nothing but, nothing except
ne...guere que
scarcely (anything, anybody) except
suivre conjugated in the present tense + past participle and present
je suis
tu suis
il suit
nous suivons
vous suivez
ils suivent

suivi
suivant
tout + le
all
tout + noun
any (each)
tout as an adverb
completely, very, quite
Past definite tense (passe simple) for -er verbs
je trouvai
tu trouvas
il trouva
nous trouvames
vous trouvates
ils trouverent
Past definite tense (passe simple) for -ir verbs
je finis
tu finis
il finit
nous finimes
vous finites
ils finirent
Past definite tense (passe simple) for -re verbs
je vendis
tu vendis
il vendit
nous vendimes
vous vendites
ils vendirent
Past definite tense (passe simple) for -ure verbs
je conclus
tu conclus
il conclut
nous conclumes
vous conclutes
ils conclurent
present conjugation of -oir verbs
je recois
tu recois
il recoit
nous recevons
vous recevez
ils recoivent
past definite conjugation of -oir verbs
je recus
tu recus
il recut
nous recumes
vous recutes
ils recurent
past definite conjugation of pouvoir, savoir, connaitre, courir, croire, conclure
je connus
il courut
ils crurent
elle conclut
je pus
vous sutes
past definite of -enir verbs
venir

je vins
tu vins
il vint
nous vinmes
vous vintes
ils vinrent
past definite of etre
je fus
tu fus
il fut
nous fumes
vous futes
ils furent
past definite of avoir
j'eus
tu eus
il eut
nous eumes
vous eutes
ils eurent
past definite of faire
je fis
tu fis
il fit
nous fimes
vous fites
ils firent
how do you form the present participle
add -ant to stem of verb
what is the stem of the verb
nous form in present tense
stem of avoir
ay-
stem of etre
et-
stem of savoir
sach-
tout + en + present participl
while, or although--emphasizes contrast
voir, present conjugation+ past participle
je vois
tu vois
il voit
nous voyons
vous voyez
ils voient

vu
voir, past definite tense
je vis
tu vis
il vit
nous vimes
vous vites
ils virent
Imperfect tense is formed
stem +
ais
ais
ait
ions
iez
ient
past perfect tense is formed
with imperfect of avoir or etre + past participle
past anterior tense is formed
with the past definite of avoir or etre + past participle
past anterior usually appears
as a literary form after aussitot que (as soon as) des que (as soon as) and quand (when)
pour can mean
in order to
afin de can mean
in order to
The present subjunctive is formed (except etre and avoir)
with stem +
e
es
e
ions
iez
ent
present subjunctive of avoir
j'aie
tu aies
il ait
nous ayons
vous ayez
ils aient
present subjunctive of etre
je sois
tu sois
il soit
nous soyons
vous soyez
ils soient
impersonal expressions in the il est ____ que + subjunctive
temps
rare
possible
juste
impossible
faux
essentiel
bon
heureux
convenable
Il convient que
it is proper (takes subjunctive)
il faut que
it is necessary (takes subjunctive)
il importe que
it is imporant (takes subjunctive)
il semble que
it seems (takes subjunctive)
il se peut que
it is possible (takes subjunctive)
il est dommage que
it is a shame (take subjunctive)
il vaut mieux que
it is better (takes subjunctive)
quoique
Although + subj
pour que
IN order that + subjunctive
en attendant que
Until + subjunctive
sans que
unless, without that +subj
au cas que
in case that +subj
de sorte que
so that, in such a way that + subjunctive
nonobstant que
in spite of the fact that + subj
pourvu que
provided that + subj
suppose que
supposing that + subj
apres que
after +indic
parce que
because + indic
pendant que
while + indic
tandis que
while, whereas + indic
puisque
since, because + indic
ainsi que
just as, in the same way + indic
pleonastic ne is often found
1. in clause following a comparison
2. with verbs of doubt used negatively or interogatively
3. in connection with a moins que (unless) or avant que (before) or de crainte que (for fear that) (all take subj)
stem of pouvoir
puiss-
stem of faire
fass-
Stem of aller in non vous, nous
aill-
stem of venir in non vous, nous
vienn-
mettre, present tense
je mets
tu mets
il met
nous mettons
vous mettez
ils mettent
imperfect tense of mettre
regular--je mettais, etec.
present participle of mettre
regular--mettant
past participle of mettre
mis
past definite of mettre
je mis
tu mis
il mit
nous mimes
vous mites
ils mirent
in imperatives tu, it drops-
the s after e or a, except before a y or en
Third person imperatives are formed
que + present subjunctive
imperatives of avoir
aie have
ayons let's have
aiez have
imperatives of etre
sois be
soyons let's be
soyez be
imperatives of savoir
sache know
sachons let us know
sachez know
en as preposition is placed ___
and stands in for
before verb; expression starting with de
pronoun y replaces
expressions starting with a
present conjugation of aller
je vais
tu vas
il va
nous allons
vous allez
ils vont
aller + infinitive
expresses future
dont
relative pronoun replacing de
lequel
either signals a question (which, who, whom) or relative
forms of lequel
m sing, m pl, f sing, f pl.
lequel, lesquels, laquelle, lesquelles
auquel, auxquels, a laquelle, auxquelles
duquel, desquels, de laquelle, desquelles
ce qui
ce que
ce qui--a subject
ce que--object
means--what, that which, which, or the fact that
soit...soit
subjunctive form of est--
indicates alternatives "either/or"
venir+de+infinitive
"Has just/had just"
venir+a
"happen to" (i.e. if you happen to be in Rome)
en venir a+inf.
"to be reduced to" + gerund
Questions are often introduced just by
inverting the subject and the verb
Est-ce que...
Introduces a question (just like inversion)
Ou + est ce or inversion
Where
Quand
when
Pourquoi
Why
Comment
How
Combien de + partitive
How many
Qui...?
Who
Que...?
What
Qu'est-ce que c'est?
What is it?
Qu'est-ce que c'est que cela?
What is that?
When a question begins with a question you use ____ for things?
quoi
Quel
means what or which,
or can mark an exclamation
Forms of quel
m sing, m pl, f sing, f pl
quel, quels, quelle, quelles
A sentence can have inverted word order when
1. It is a question
2. begins with aussi, ainsi, peut-etre, or sans doute
3. A clause following an object relative pronoun
Aussi
therefore
ainsi
thus
N'est-ce pas
translates as a "tag question" i.e. It was a terrible storm _wasn't it_?
Future tense
add endings:
-ai, -as, -a, -ons, -ez, -ont to the infinitive
(with -re verbs the e is dropped)
Conditional
stem just like future (infinitive, but -re verbs without final e)
-ais, ais, ait, ions, iez, ient
future stem of avoir
aur-
future stem of etre
ser-
future stem of aller
ir-
future stem of faire
fer-
future stem of pouvoir
pourr-
future stem of vouloir
voudr-
future stem of falloir
il faudr-
future stem of voir
verr-
future stem of recevoir
recevr-
future stem of mourir
mourr-
future stem of savoir
saur-
future stem of tenir
tiendr-
future stem of venir
viendr-
Supposition can be represented with the
subjunctive in the main clause
Conditions will be in both clauses when it means
even if (i.e. Quand (bien)... or Il y...
present forms of devoir
je dois
tu dois
il doit
nous devons
vous devez
ils doivent
imperfect forms of devoir
je devais
tu devais
il devait
nous devions
vous deviez
ils devaient
present subjunctive forms of devoir
je doive
tu doives
il doive
nous devions
vous deviez
ils doivent
past participle of devoir
du
present participle of devoir
devant
future stem of devoir
devr-
past definite forms of devoir
je dus
tu dus
il dut
nous dumes
vous dutes
ils durent
future perfect and conditional perfect are formed with
future or conditional + past participle
present subjunctive of avoir or etre + past participle are translated like
regular past indefinite
Imperfect of the subjunctive (aimer)
j'aimasse
tu aimasses
il aimat
nous aimassions
vous aimassiez
ils aimassent
imperfect of the subjunctive (rendre)
je rendisse
tu rendisses
il rendit
nous rendissiez
ils rendissent
imperfect of the subjunctive (croire)
je crusse
tu crusses
il crut
nous crussions
vous crussiez
ils crussent
imperfect of the subjunctive (irregular)
think past definite
imperfect subjunctive is often translated just like the indicative, but it can also have
conditional meanings-as in "if only" or "even if" (fut-elle, fut-ce)
s'en pendre a
to find fault with, to blame
s'y pendre
to go about something
en pendre son parti
to resign oneself to
pendre un parti
to come to a decision
tenir a
to desire
tenir de
to take after, resemble
se tenir debout
stand up
se tenir a
to keep at, remain
tenir pour
to be in favor of, to consider as
s'en tenir a
to be satisfied with, to confine oneself to
Il y a
ago+time (Five years ago)
voila
for+time (for three years)
voici
for+time (for three years)
depuis
with quantity of time "for"
without "since"