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135 Cards in this Set

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What was France divided into before the French Revolution?
Provinces
After the French Revolution, how many departments were created?
90
When was Paris divided into 5 departments?
1960's
How many departments are there in France now?
95
What is "le Province" in France?
Everything besides Paris
Did all of the old Provinces have the same power?
les duchés de Normandie, Bretagne, Savoir, les comtés de Champagne, Province, and Acquitaine were an independent royaume under the Mérovingiens and the Carolingiens - a "state dans the state" a their head a duc or a comte also powerful and sometimes more powerful than the king
What was the last great feudal ensemble and when did it end?
Le duc de Bourgogne Charles le Temeraire, against Louis XI; ended at the end of the 15th century
How did people in France identify themselves during and towards the end of the feudal period?
Comment apaprtenant a une "nationa" provinciale, et pas commen "Francais"
(Only people from l"ile de France identified themselves as "Francais")
Why were departments established after the French Revolution?
The revolution revait d'une Repblique "une et indivisible" and they couldn't les voir defavorablement, d'autant qu'delles rappellaient trop le system feodal on Jan. 15, 1790; also, departments were an entreprise de nivellement avec des tailles ou des populations comparables
What is the name of a department named after a river and one named after a mountain?
River - Rhone
Mountain - Hautes-Alpes
What are the license plate numbers for Paris and Marseille?
Paris - 75
Marseille - 13
What's the problem with the way departments are named?
It's hard to identify yourself with a number or as an "Ere-et-Loirais;" easier to identify as an "Vosgien" or "Haut-Alpin"
Describe the characteristics of N. France, S. France, E. France, and W. France
N. France - populated, used to be separated by langue d'oc ou d'oil; today separated by climate of the ligne Bordeaux-Geneve
S. France -
E. France - industrielle et tertiaire
W. France - rurale and agricole
What englobant areas do the following apply to?
Ouest
Est
Midi
Sud-Ouest
Sud-Est
Ourest - Bretagne et Pays de Loire
Est - Alsace et Lorraine
Middi - Provence et Languedoc
Sud-Ouest - Languedoc et Aquitaine
Sud-Est - Provence et Rhone-Alpes
What is a region?
Today, c'est d'abord identifiee par ses sites touristiques, montagnes, et bords de mer; all s'agit terms toponymiques ou geographiques, identified by tourism and gastronomie
What is the only region not named after geography?
Nord-Pas-de-Calais
When were the regions created?
1955; (dotee since 1964, became public establishments in 1972)
How many regions are there?
22
What are the two different tendencies?
la tendance jacobine - centralism
l'émiettement départmental - petite division
What are the different drinks associated with the following regions:
Normand/Breton
Alsace
"Midi"
Normand/Brenton - le cidre
Alsace - le biere
"Midi" - le pastis
What are the cheese associated with the following regions?
La Normandie
La Savoie
L'Auvergne
Les Causses
La Normandie - le camembert
La Savoie - La tomme
L'Auvergne - le "bleu"ou le cantal
Les Causses -le roquefort
What are the dishes associated with the following regions:
Alsace
Breton
Toulouse
Marseille
Savoie et Bourgogne
Normandie
Alsace - la choucroute
Breton - les crepes
Toulouse - le cassoulet
Marseille - la bouillabaisse
Savoie or Bourgogne - la fondue
le Midi - l'huile
la Normandie - la cuisine a la creme
What are the stereotypes of:
la Gascogne
la Bretagne
l'Alsace
Midi
la Gascogne - il est hâbleur et batailleur, (fought in Catholic wars - reputation guerriere gave birth to literature of 19th century, repris in film)

la Bretagne - têtu et impulsif - gave rise to two images, one of sous-developpé, (Bécassine, la bonne à tout faire bien intentionné, mais idiote de bande dessinée); another of tenacité du grand coeur, (Victor Hugo stories)

l'Alsace - leur langue et leur accent germaniques; patriotes - les plus "Européens" des Francais

Midi - avoir le verbe haut; le sens du geste theatral; "acent" aux voyelles ouvertes (Toulouse - amateur de cassoulet et de ruby; Marseille a la eputation de ne pas etre serieux ~ characters of Marius an Olive)
Are there still regional particularisms? If so, where?
Yes family structure, habitat, ways of speaking, agmes, sports, parties, enquetes ethnographiques (true everywhere except maybe Paris); ex. le taux de la langue regionale atteignant en moyenne 15% and 30% understand local language, but don't speak it
Describe the sentiment d'appartenance.
On se sent avant tout "de sa commune," puis de son departement et de sa region, then de France; ex. only 30% of Marseilleise identify themselves as French
Describe the dynamic between globalization and l'attachment.
Il est vrai que les manifestations de l'attachement des populations a ces cultures son peu spectaculaires et plus privees que publiques
Where did the centralist tendancy in France come from?
Louis XIV fromt eh French Revolution et from Napoleon
How is political power set up in France?
La France administrative drawn by Napoleon est very strongly centralized; au plan local, only le prefet, repsentant de l'etate, decdies, and les maires are nomme, not elected
What is a commune?
une collectivite de proxoimite; competenté pour l'urbanisme, l'état civil, l'enseignement primarie
What type of political entities are departments?
une collectivité de solidarité - s'occupe des colleges, des ports de commerce, d'ation et d'aide sociales
What type of political entity are regions?
développment économique - s'occupe des lycées
Describe the diverse geography of France.
rivages de la Méditerranée; Alpes du Sud; plaines fluviales et littorales; les massifs de moyenne et basse Provence
What unites la Provence?
the climate grace a un ensoleillement exceptionnel; frequent violent winds, (le Mistral)
What is le Mistral?
vent du Nord qui rafraichit always teh temprature and éloigne les nuages
Why is the environment fragile in Provence?
la foret needs to be protected from défrichement and frequent incendies
What percentage of Provence is protected?
12% - trois parcs nationaux et trois parcs regionaux
What is la garrigue?
Secondary vegetation basse (herbes et buissons) that grown sur un sol calcaire apres déforestation
Is le Mistral beneficial or destructive?
Le mistral est un vent violent et capricieux; il peut souffler 150 a 180 jours par an; creates an intense evaporation; creates the pureté fo the skin and the luminosité of its atmosphere
What creates le Mistral?
la différence de pression barométrique between a zone dépresionnaire, centrée sur le Golfe de Gênes et de hautes pressions situées au nord et a l'ouest du Massif Central
When were amandes imported to France and from where?
Imported from Asie in 1548
What are amandes used for?
la fabrication de calissons
Where are olives cultivated?
Salon, Nyons, and versants, (mountainsides) of s. of mountains
What determines the quality of olive oil?
The pureté des fruits et du proédé de fabrication
When is the lavander growing season?
July to September
What is lavandin?
un rendement bien supérieur to lavande braie, mais est d'une essence de qualité inférieure
What plants come from St-Rémyde-Provence?
le basilic et la marjolaine
What plants come from le Vucluse?
l'estrgon
What is tarragon used for?
Flavoring
What is absinthe used for?
To make drinks
What were adjectives used by Pagnol to describe color and scent of the countryside of Provence?
luisant, (glowing); brune; son teint naturel; un parfum puissant s'éleva comme un nuage; enveloppa tout entier
Is viticole a recent activity in Provence?
No, c'est la plus ancienne région viticole de France (Jules César chose the vins of Provence to give to his soldiers after their retour fromt the conquete de la Gaule
What percentage of the exploitations agricoles of Provence is viticulture?
1/2
How many people does the production of wine employ?
22,000
What are the principal department producteurs of wine?
Bouches du Rhone. le Var, and Vauclus
What are some crus of Provence?
le Gigondas
un blanc de Cassis
un Cote du Ventoux
un Cote du Lubéron
un Coteau d'Aix
What is le muscat de Beaumes-deVenice?
Persistently acclaimed wine, boit en apéritif
What is l'aioli?
A sauce served abec un plat de morue and vegetables
What are santons?
statuettes made as an act of devotion; made in the two or three weeks preceding Noel; connue depuis le début du 19th century
Who are the "pointeurs" in pétanque and who are the "tireurs"
"Pointeurs" - doivent lancer leurs boules le plus pres possible to the "cochonnet"
"Tireurs" - doive déloger les boules de l'autre équipe
Why is Provence a region of contrasts?
Les plaines (la Camargue, la Crau, le Comtat Venaissin), les montagnes, (Alpes et Préalpes du Sud), le littoral, et les cotes des Maures et de l'Esterel

Espaces denses, (Bouches-du-Rhone, les Aples-maritimes, le Var, et le Vaucluse) et espaces dépeuplés, (Alpes-de-Haute-Provence et les Hautes Alpes)
Where does PACA rank in population?
3rd Region
What age are most of the imigrants?
Aged; often aisées (well-off)
What immigration movements modified the Provencal population?
L'Installation de pres de 400,000 rapatriés d'Afrique du Nord et l'immigration maghrébine
What cities are identified as rich and which ones have many poor?
Rich - Cote d'Azur, Var
Poor - Marseille
What types of divisions exist between the people in Provence?
Rich vs. Poor
Qualified and Not Qualified
la vocation méditerranéenne réaffirmée vs. la volonté de s'intégrer au développement rapide du bassin Saone Rhone
What is the déséquilibre in the industrial sector?
grandes unités de production et un tissue de petites enterprises
From a demographic region, is Provence a dynamic region or one in decline?
One in decline, because a lot of weathy old people come to the area
What are the political problems of Provence, (relating to migration)?
La cohabitation des communautées est une donnée régionale historique, souvent marquée par des réactions de violence ou une marginalisation momentanée des nombreuses et tres diverses minorités
Why is the port important for Marseille?
c'est un noyau central autour de Marseille, dont le porte reste un élément structurant majeur
How many universites are in Provence?
6
Is Provence good for research?
2nd in France after Paris
Describe the political transformations in PACA.
1960's - swing to the right in electorats from Alpes-Maritimes
1970-80's - electorats from Var

Political Extremes - extreme droit que n'one démenti ni résultats des élections municipales de Mars 2001 ni ceux de l'élection présidentielle de 2002
What happened in 125-122 avant J.C.?
Conquete de la Provence par les Romains; fondation d'Aquae Sextiae (Aix) par Sextius Calvinus en 123
What happened in 476 apres J.C.?
Chute (fall) de l'empires Romain d'Occident
What happened in 1309-1378?
les papes d'Avignon
What happened in 1486?
Réunion définitive a la France: Décision ratifiée par les "états de Provene"
What happened in 1539?
édit de Villers-Cotteret imposant l'usage du francais pour les actes administratifs
What happened in 1792?
500 voluntaires marseillais des armées révolutionaires défilent a Paris en chantant le chant de l'armée du Rhine qui est désormais appelé "La Marseillaise"
What happened in 1981?
Paris-Marseille reliées par le TGV
What were les rapports betwen la Provence a l'Italie Romaine?
27-22 avant J.C. - Organisations de la Provence par l'empereur Auguste: Romanizations

Ier-IIIe siecles - Pax romana; début du christianism; persvcutions religieuses par les Romains
What was Provincia?
Romands extended progressively sa domination sur un vaste pays representing the S. moitié of France, creding un rempart against barbaric invasions that menaced Italy; this region became Provincia ~ Provence
What were the barbaric tribes that Provincia was established to protect against?
Teutons et les Cimbres
How did Marseille get its name?
le consul Marius vainc des Barbares qui attaquaient la Provincia lors d'une vataille tres celebre
When was Provincia soumised by Rome?
Jules César used Provincia as a base d'opération en -58 to invade la "Gaule Chevelue" du nord.
What is the Pax Romana?
permettre une lente assimilation des populatoins de la région a l'Empire Romain ~ Provincia est appelée "ne autre Italie;" rustic countryside became urbaine ~ prosperité permitted constructin of a number of buildlings
What was the official language of Provincia during the Pax Romana?
Latin
What does civilization "gallo-romaine" mean?
Around time Christianism was trying to take root in Provincia, les villes phares de la Provence sont marseille et Arles, (appelé "la Rome des Gaules"
In what cities can you see evidence of Roman occupation?
Marseille et Arles
What did the Romans build in Orange?
Arc de Triomphe et son theatre antique, (Chorégies d'Orange)
In what city is there a large 20,000 spectator theatre constructed by the Romans?
Arles
What was happening in Provence around 700?
Les comtes francs installés in Provence fought against the central power ~ Charles Martel s'empare Arles et Marseille ~ Provence soumised to N. France ~ counts revolt ~ royaume de Provence appears
What happened to Provence in 1033?
Provence était intégrée au Saint Empire Romain Germanique (did not leave a strong empreinte
What was unique about the romanesque-style churches?
nef unique voutée en berceau; abside circulaire; richment décorées; grandes abbayes bénédictines
What is the most recent of the three abbayes cistercienne de provence?
l'Abbaye de Silvacane
How did the abbey of Silva Cana get it's name?
fondé dans un sit désolé et marecageux
What is Avignon know as?
The city of popes and theatre
When did the popes come to Avignon and why?
A cause des guerres en Italie ~ moved 9 Mars 1309
During what month is Avignon full of music and theatre?
Juillet
What happened with the lodging crisis in Avignon?
Cardinal bought pour lui et ses proches 51 maisons; aux autres de se débrouiller
What two palaces remain in Avignon?
Palais Vieux - construit par Benoit XI (vast cuisins ornée d'une hotte énorme)

Palais Neuf - construit par Clément VI - un faste
Describe the founding of the Festival d'Avignon
Fondé en 1947 by Jean Vilar; an exposition of peinture et sculpture contemporaines, organized in Palais des Papes by Christian Zervos and René Char - wanted Jean Vilar to present his first public success: Meurtre dans la cathédrale, but the Palais was trop vaste et trop informe pour lui ~ created festival for lesser-known works ~ ceated Theatre National Populaire ~ petit a petit, le festival attire a Avignon toutes les avant-gardes theatrales, choregraphiques, et meme musicales
What is le "off?"
amateurs; regroupement épars (scattered) de compagnies d'abord locals puis de junes équipes qui veulent toucher le public du Festival
What is the specificity of the Festival d'Avignon d'apres it ancient programmateur?
la cohérence; it's a place of confrontation ~ tache du programmateur est d'organiser la confrontation; festival of création
What are the roman languages?
italien, roumain, catalan, espagnol, portugais, langue d'oil au Nord de Frnace et langue d'oc dans le Midi
When did le provencal come into use?
11th century (l'époque mérovingienne)
What does 'L'Occitaine tout entiere" mean?
It means it's not just provencale, it's from Bordeaux to Nice, (like the littérature des troubadours)
Who are the poets mentioned in the Guide?
Jaufré Rudel de Blaye, Bernard de Ventadour, Peire Vidal de Toulouse, For Provence - Raimbaut d'Orange, la comtesse de Die, Raimbaut de Vaqeiras, Flquet de Marseille
What was the only administrative language in the Middle Ages?
La langue d'oc
Who used to be troubadours?
Aristocracy - rois ou des princes, but they had their valets, (jongleurs ou ménestrels), transmettent ce répertoire de chateau en chateau
What type of love did Troubadours sing of?
a mystic type of love - unattainable; la femme (noble) devient un object de respect quasi divin; l'amour est chaste, chante de fidélité, loyauté, constance, sincérité, soumissio, obéissance; il ne répresente pas la vie de chaque jour
What was le félibrige?
Un mouvement littéraire régionaliste fondé en 1854 afin de faire renaitre la langue et la culture provencales
What did Frédéric Mistral say were the two objectives of the Félibrige?
1. Ravier en Provence le sentiment de race
2. Provoquer cette résurretion par la restauration de la langue naturelle et historique du pays
What was the first publication du Félibrige?
l'Armana Prouvencau in 1855
What were the two mouvements fideles au félibrige traditionaelle?
la Cigal et le Félibrige de Paris
What language is French derived from?
Latin with a Gaulois "twist;" came from latin des soldates, des marchands, et des colons romains, not classical Latin
What is "le Boulevard" in Bastides Blanches?
A assez longue esplanade soutenue par un rempart de pierres bien dix metres de hauteur et qui finissait en parapet sous un rangee de tres vieux planatnes; people come here pour la conversation
Where did people come tosettle in Bastides Blanches and why?
La Placette; si on monte au milieu du Boulevard, find fontaine qui portait une conque de pierre; la seule source importante du pays
What was la Mairie in Bastides Blanche?
La plus grande batisse du village; le siege du "Cercle Repblicain;" organized de jeux de loto et de jeux de petanque
What were the five names of the Bastidiens?
Anglade, Chabert, Olivier, Cascavel, et Soubeyran
When was Aix a capital?
Au temps des Gaulois
How did Aix-en-Provence get its name?
Aquae Sextiae, a cause du grand nombre de sources qui alimentent la ville en eau; la ville tire son nom de l'eau et de son fondateur romain (Sextus Calvinus)
What is Aix known for?
Son courant artistique; "ville d'art et de culture;" hotels particuliers
What is happening in Aix today?
une ville d'industries dans les domaines de l'informatique, de l'electronique, et de la recherche-developpement
What happened to Aix's population in the 50s?
It tripled (une croissance demographique exceptionelle)
Who founded Arles?
Les Pheniciens
What did Constantin call Arles?
"Petite Rome des Gaules"
What remains of the prosperity in Arles?
Le theatre et l'ampitheatre
What is the deserve of rocks where lambs live?
Le Crau
Where is Soleiado produced?
Tarascon
What is Alphilles known for? 2 things)
Baux-de-Provence - carrieres de bauxite; reputee pour les oliviers
What is Luberon known for? (2 things)
Terre de sorcellerie; terre rouge
Where did Petrarque come to meditate?
La Fontaine de Vaucluse
where is petanque from?
l'isle sur la sorgue
Describe la garrigue? (2 things)
petites maisons en pierre; apicultuers (ruches)
What mountain is very difficult to climb?
Le Mount Ventoux;