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31 Cards in this Set

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a belief about the worth of something, about what matters, that acts as a standard to guide one's behavior
value
an organization of values in which each is ranked along a continuum of importance, often leading to a personal code of conduct
value system
peripheral nerve fibers transmit pain
nocioceptive
pain from injury to or abnormal peripheral nerve fibers
neuropathic
pain where no physical cause is found
psychogenic
sources of nocioceptive pain (4)
cutaneous
somatic
visceral
neuropathic
occurs as organs stretch, poorly localized
visceral
scattered, tendons, ligaments, bones, BV's, nerves
somatic
skin
cutaneous
pain is perceived in an area distant from its point of origin
referred
rapid in onset, varies in intensity and duration
protective in nature
acute
may be limited, intermittent, or persistant
last for 6 mos or longer
periods of remission and exacerbation are common
chronic
activation of pain receptors
transduction
conduction along pathways (A delta and C delta fibers)
transmission
initiation of the protective reflex response
modulation
awareness of the characteristics of pain
perception of pain
what stimulates nocioceptors?
bradykinin
prostaglandins
substance P
vasodilator, cause redness and swelling
bradykinin
sends pain stimulus to CNS
prostaglandins
sensitizing receptor to apin and cause increase nerve firing
substance P
the lowest intensity of a stimulus that causes the subect to recognize pain
pain threshold
the pain threshold can be changed
adaptation
the process where the sensation of pain is inhibited or modificed
modulation
what regulates or modifies the sensation of pain
neuromodulaters
opiod neuromodulator that is produced in the neural synapses at various points in the CNS, powerful pain blocking chemical
endorphins
the most powerful endorphin
dynorphin
reduces pain by inhibiting production of substance P
enkephalins
WILDA scale?
words to describe pain
Intensity
Location
Duration
Aggravating or Alleviating factors
biofeedback
uses a machine to monitor physiologic responses through electrode sensors on the patients skin
a pharmaceutical agent that relieves pain
analgesic
adjuvant drugs
used for other purposes but also help pain