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177 Cards in this Set

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How many people will be over the age of 65 by the year 2030?
1 in 5
What is social gerontology?
The subfield of gerontology that looks at the nonphysiological aspects of aging.
A professional gerontologist describes herself as a person who looks at the broad, nonphysiological aspects of aging. Of which subfield would she be a member?

a. Social Gerontology
b. Sociology
c. Social psychology
d. Social biology
a. Social Gerontology
Aging is

a. a physiological process common only to humans.
b. a natural life span process common to all living organisms.
c. a naturalistic process common only to humans.
d. a sequential physiological process that occurs at the same rate in all living organisms.
b. a natural life span process common to all living organisms.
Mrs. Jones goes to the Social Security office to apply for Medicare. The intake worker asks her to provide a copy of her birth certificate to prove eligibility. The intake worker is using which definition of aging?

a. functional
b. psychological
c. chronological
d. biological
c. chronological
When discussing biological aging, scientists

a. focus on what happens before maturity is reached.
b. have identified a unifying theory that explains the mechanics underlying the biological phenomena of aging.
c. know that the only fact that can be stated for certain is that all living organisms will eventually die.
d. know that the biological aging process varies among individuals but does not vary within different physiological systems of the same person
c. know that the only fact that can be stated for certain is that all living organisms will eventually die.
Mrs. Smith has gray hair, walks with a shuffle, and has wrinkled skin. The store clerk refers to her as "that little old lady." The clerk is using which definition of aging?

a. chronological
b. functional
c. psychological
d. sociological
b. functional
Mrs. Summer's mother and grandmother both died from breast cance. She expresses concern that this will also happen to her. What type of age-related effect is she describing?

a. intrinsic effect
b. extrinsic effect
c. cohotort effect
d. period effect
a. intrinsic effect
A gerontologist develops a research study that compares the frequency of social contacts among the same sample of women over a thirty-year period. Measures are taken after the women reach 20, 30, 40, and 50 years of age. This type of research design is called a

a. developmental study
b. longitudinal study
c. cross-sectional study
d. experimental study
b. longitudinal study
A researcher is comparing the frequency of diabetes between a group of 60-year-old men and a group of 70-year-old men. This type of design is

a. cross-sectional
b. longitudinal
c. period analysis
d. experimental analysis
a. cross-sectional
Which of the following statements regarding validity and reliability is true?

a. a measure can be valid without being reliable.
b. both validity and reliability are always present in all studies.
c. a valid measure gives stable results over time.
d. a measure can never be valid without being reliable.
d. a measure can never be valid without being reliable
Ageism is

a. using a combination of positive traits to describe older adults.
b. negative stereotypes of someone based on his or her advanced chronological years.
c. the life transitions of older adults
d. maintaining friendships with people who are the same age
b. negative stereotypes of someone based on his or her advanced chronological years.
Jan Jones is a gerontologist and a strong program advocate for older adults. When she presents her arguments to lawmakers, she routinely focuses on the problems of older adults in order to increase public sympathy. This behavior can

a. help the elderly get the services they need with no negative effects.
b. help young people look forward to aging.
c. underestimate the problems of older adults.
d. exaggerate the needs of older adults and result in an unintentional reinforcement of negative stereotypes.
d. exaggerate the needs of older adults and result in an unintentional reinforcement of negative stereotypes.
Which of the following is a fact about aging in the United States?

a. All old people live an isolated life
b. retirement undermines people's physical health.
c. the United States has no mandatory retirement age.
d. older adults are inflexible and resistant to change
c. the United States has no mandatory retirement age
The belief that the nature of preindustrialized societies gave older adults certain advantages is one of the tenets of which aging theory?

a. modernization
b. psychological
c. disengagement
d. continuity
a. modernization
According to the 2000 United States census, the older population has

a. increased to one older adult for every five Americans.
b. increased only in urban areas.
c. increased to one older adult for every eight americans.
d. remained stable over the last twenty years.
c. increased to one older adult for every eight americans
The trend in aging in the United States shows that people age 65 to 75

a. are not living as long as they did twenty years ago
b. show an increase in frequency of acute illnesses.
c. are part of the baby bust generation
d. are living longer
d. are living longer
Over a forty-year period, the number of old-old people in the United States has

a. decreased due to increased mortality from acute illnesses.
b. remained stable in all areas of the country
c. become the fastest-growing segment of the elderly population.
d. increased only in urban areas
c. become the fastest-growing segment of the elderly population
Which of the following is one of the three basic reasons for the growth of America's older population?

a. a large number of people who were born when the birthrate was high are now reaching age 65.
b. World War I immigrants aare now reaching the age of 65.
c. control of life-threatening health problems has resulted in an earlier onset of disease and a shorter life expectancy.
d. there has been increased control of communicable diseases during middle adulthood.
a. a large number of people who were born when the birthrate was high are now reaching age 65.
What factor is expected to cause labor shortages in the year 2010?

a. increased technology will decrease labor needs.
b. the baby bust generation begins to retire.
c. the baby boom generation begins to retire.
d. economic downturn is projected.
c. the baby boom generation begins to retire.
Population pyramids are useful in studying aing and populations because they provide

a. written summaries of health-related trends among older adults.
b. graph-based comparisons between age and sex categories within a single population and between populations.
c. comparisons of housing and economic conditions between populations.
d. narrative summaries of comparisons between economic conditions and health within a single population.
b. graph-based comparisons between age and sex categories within a single population and between populations.
One of the most readily available population measurements and one that is least subject to manipulation is

a. percentage of older people in the population.
b. life expectancy
c. aged dependency ration.
d. total dependency ration.
a. percentage of older people in the population.
The total dependency ratio is the

a. ratio of the number of infants under the age of one to the total number of employable people age 15 to 64.
b. total youth and aged populations compared to the population of working age.
c. ratio of life expectancy at birth compared to mortality rates.
d. total aged population compared to infant mortality rates.
b. total youth and aged populations compared to the population of working age.
In terms of population documentation, the U.S. Bureau of the Census asks that, on census survey forms, Hispanic Americans or Latinos

a. identify themselves as hispanic
b. select any racial category
c. identify themselves as Latinos of European or South American descent
d. select only the Hispanic of European or South American descent category
b. select any racial category
In terms of diversity, the elderly population in the United States is

a. becoming more racially and ethnically diverse at a faster reate than the total U.S. population.
b. experiencing no change in racial makeup.
c. becoming more racially and ethnically diverse but not as rapidly as the total U.S. population
d. experiencing the same rate of aging among all racial groups.
c. becoming more racially and ethnically diverse but not as rapidly as the total U.S. population
In terms of jobs, housing , and access to health care, Native Americans

a. are better off than African Americans
b. are worse off than African Americans
c. are better off than Japanese Americans
d. experience a comparable place with African Americans
b. are worse off than African Americans
Mrs. Williams is a 75-year-old African American woman with a third-grade education. She has worked minimum-wage jobs with no retirement benefits for her entire life. This woman's situation is

a. not a common situation
b. an example of multiple jeopardy.
c. not a risky one because Social Security will adequately neet her needs.
d. an example of risk factors only in terms of her race and her lack of retirement benefits.
b. an example of multiple jeopardy.
Which of the following factors affect a population's sex ratio?

a. changes in the leading causes and average ages of death
b. marital status
c. level of education
d. income level od primary breadwinner
a. changes in the leading causes and average ages of death
Mrs. Maybe's husband just died. He was a blue-collar worker with a modest retirement income. Mrs. Maybe, who is 65, may be expected to

a. remarry within five years.
b. live alone with a stable income for the rest of her life.
c. love in with adult children.
d. live alone with a sharply reduced income and at high risk for poverty.
d. live alone with a sharply reduced income and at high risk for poverty.
A true statement about the educational attainment of older Americans is that the

a. level of education increases for each succeeding generation.
b. youngest older people (age 65 - 74) have the lowest educational levels.
c. level of education has not changed over the last twenty years.
d. older population reflects great homogeneity in terms of levels of education.
a. level of education increases for each succeeding generation.
The U.S. poverty level

a. allows for regional variations in the costs of of food and health care.
b. allows for cost increases in such areas as rent and child care.
c. is based only on an estimate of the cost of food and is weighted for the number of persons in a household.
d. is based on estimates of the cost of food, health care, and housing and is weighted for the number of persons ins a household.
c. is based only on an estimate of the cost of food and is weighted for the number of persons in a hosuehold.
Women receive less retirement income than men for all of the following reasons except

a. changes in family structure.
b. declining rates if marriage.
c. maintenance of consistent patterns of work.
d. high divorce rates.
c. maintenance of consistent patterns of work.
The economic resources identified by the federal government as needed by older Americans for an effective retirement are:

A. personal savings, private pensions, and Social Security
B. Social Security and Supplemental Security Insurance
C. private pensions and Supplemental Security Income
D. personal savings, private pensions, and Supplemental Security Income
A. personal savings, private pensions, and Social Security
Over the last sixteen years, labor force participation for older adults has

A. not changed in terms of retirement age
B. changed significantly with a trend toward early retirement
C. changed significantly with a trend for older people to remain in the workforce past age 65
D. changed in terms of retirement ages for African Americans but not for Caucasians
B. changed significantly with a trend toward early retirement
Since 1965, the median retirement age in the United States has

A. consistently decreased
B. increased for men
C. increased for both men and women
D. remained the same
A. consistently decreased
The geographic distribution of older adults in the United States tends to be concentrated in

A. the Northwest and Florida
B. Florida, Arizona, and Northeast
C. states with high fertility rates
D. the most populous states
D. the most populou states
During any one year, the mobility patterns of older adults

A. reflect those of other adult age groups
B. are considerably higher than other age groups
C. make up less than 4 percent of all people who move in the United States
D. show major geographical moves of great distances
C. make up less than 4 percent of all people who move in the United States
Which four diseases account for approximately 60 percent of all chronic conditions reported by community-based older adults?

A. arthritis, hypertension, hearing impairments, and heart disease
B. hypertension, diabetes, vision problems, and heart disease
C. arthritis, hypertension, fractures. and heart disease
D. hypertension, diabetes. infections, and heart disease
A. arthritis, hypertension, hearing impairments, and heart disease
Reports of individual health status

A. are consistent across races
B. show consistent levels of health insurance coverage across age and income levels
C. vary by the race of the repondent
D. are not related to such areas as chronic discrimination and other social and emotional issues
C. vary by the race of the respondent
Successful medication management among older adults is

A. simple due to their limited use of prescription medications
B. significant for many older adults due to the number of medications used and changes insensory abilities
C. problematic only in nursing homes where residents take numerous prescription drugs
B. significant for many older adults due to the number of medications used and changes in sensory abilities
Which of the following countries currently has the highest female life expectancy?

A. Australia
B. United States
C. India
D. Japan
D. Japan
Physical aging involves

A. an increase in the viability of the body
B. a decrease in the viability of the body and an increase in its vulnerability to disease
C. cellular-level changes that occur at the same rate and at the same time in every body cell
D. an increase in the viability of the body and a decrease in its vulnerabilty to disease
B. a decrease in the viability of the body and an increase in its vulnerability to disease
Which of the following is one of the three common factors identified with the aging process?

A. an increase ability to cope with one's environment
B. discreet age-related changes that are unique to each individual in a species
C. reductions in viability solely in the cardiovascular system
D. common age-related changes to a species that are inescapable processes of aging
D. common age-related dhanges to a species that are inescapable processes of aging
Senescence

A. refers to prereproductive growth in children
B. increases the survival capacity of individual organisms and decreases the probability of an early death
C. refers to the process of becoming old and generally refers to postreproductive changes
D. is not a universal occurrence among the human species
C. refers to the process of becoming old and generally refers to postreproductive changes
Which of the following is not a quality of physically based aging?

A. to be part of the aging process, a phenomenon must be universal
B. the aging process comes on rapidly from outside the body
C. the aging process comes on gradually from within the body
D. physical aging has a negative effect on the body's functioning
B. The aging process comes on rapidly from outside the body
The term that refers to the maximum length of life that is biologically possible for a given species is

A. life expectancy at birth
B. age changes
C. life expectancy
D. life span
D. life span
One of the two general stategies gerontologists believe can increase life expectancy is

A. decreasing the death rate from copd
B. identifying the biochemical aspects of aging in order to discover the factors controlling the rate of aging
D. decreasing the death rate from diabetes
B. identifying the biochemical aspects of aging in order to discover the factors controlling the rate of aging
Physiologically, the aging cardiovascular system has increased difficulty managing unusual burdens on the heart. Behaviorally, this age-related change could result in

A. heart attacks and strokes due to the increased workload placed on the heart
B. dehydration due to decreased fluid intake
C. decreased reflexes and reaction times
D. frequent urination from an enlarged prostate in men and undiagnoses bladder or kidney infections in women
A. heart attacks and strokes due to the increased workload placed on the heart
In this theory of aging, the body is likened to a machine that functions less efficiently with prolonged use and numerous insults. What is the name of this theory?

A. fixed amount of time theory
B. wear and tear theory
C. declining energy theory
D. collagen theory
B. wear and theory
The advantage of this theory of aging is that it can explain the differential rate of cell division in various animals and the consistency with which cell populations double their numbers from sample to sample. What is the name of this theory?

a. Genetic theory of programmed aging
b. Free radical theory
c. Mutation theory
d. Theory of reserve capacity
A. Genetic theory of programmed aging
According to this theory of aging, unstable oxygen molecules are produced that join to various proteins and create biologically abnormal molecules. Over time, the accumulation of these ineffective abnormal molecules impairs the functional capacity of an organism. What is the name of this theory?

A. Theory of reserved capacity
B. Immune theory
C. Free radical theory
D. Wear and tear theory
C. Free radical theory
The theory of unresolved stress suggests that

A. disease-causing stress often interacts with aging to accelerate degeneration
B. a decrease in levels of controlling hormones results in increased stress
C. dendrites and synapses decline with age and put additional stress on the organism
D. each person has a fixed amount of time to live; the fater it is used , the quicker it is gone
A. disease-causing stress often interacts with aging to accelerate degeneration
The amount of a person's physical energy is directly related to the

A. capacity of the body's blood, organs, and other bodily systems to deliver oxygen and other nutrients throughout the body and remove waste products
B. body's increased capacity with aging to coordinate its systems and deliver nutrients to all areas
C. the person's psychological determination to perform at a certain level
D. body's increased ability to coordinate the level of functioning of its internal systems and delivery of oxygen
A. capacity of the body's blood, organs, and other bodily systems to deliver oxygen and other nutrients throughout the body and remove waste products
The most common changes in physical appearance due to age (such as aging skin and graying hair) are significant as

A. an outward sign of the declining health of a person
B. a symbol of membership in the category of an older adult person
C. an outward sign of decreasing cognitive ability
D. an accurate signal to other members of society that a person has decreased levels of physical and intellectual ability
B. a symbol of membership in the category of an older adult person
Jane Brown is a 54-year-old woman who complains of irregular periods, hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and a variety of emotional reactions not common to her personality. The most probable physical event occurring to her is

A. depression
B. some type of acute infection
C. menopause
D. adult onset diabetes
C. menopause
Health is often described as occurring on a continuum. Which of the following describes one of the extremes of that continuum?

A. for people who are not ill or impaired, health is a neutral factor in their lives
B. a health condition becomes incapacitating to a point that the person needs help from other members in the community
C. the person experiences complete well-being where there is both an absence of disease and the presence of the vitality found with a high-functioning mind and body
D. health conditions are present that require an alteration of customary lifestyles
C. the person experiences complete well-being where there is both an absence of disease and the presence of the vitality found with a high-functioning mind and body
An objective measure of health is defined as

A. documentation of the tasks that a person can or cannot perform
B. global assessment of health based on the patient's self-reports
C. the family's report of the older adult's health status
D. statistical measures that identify the prevalence of health conditions among a group or for specific individuals
D. statistical measures that identify the prevalence of health conditions among a group or for specific individuals
Mr. Peterson has been hospitalized for three weeks with bacterial pneumonia. He would be described as having

A. a chronic condition
B. an unstable illness
C. a condition that needs to be stabilized not cured
D. an acute condition
D. an acute condition
John Spencer is an 80-year-old man who has been diagnosed with dementia. Family and friends would have to be prepared to cope with which group of symptoms related to the disease?

A. depression, cancer, incoherent speech
B. loss of memory, improvement in musculoskeletal functions, delirium
C. depression, loss of memory, incoherent speech
D. agitation,depression, diabetes
C. depression, loss of memory, incoherent speech
Chronic conditions among old people

A. can be long-term, but are not necessarily disabling
B. are not the leading cause of disability in old age
C. have a sudden onset
D. are always long-term and disabling
A. can be long-term, but are not necessarily disabling
Two of the leading causes of chronic conditions among the elderly are

A. obesity and cataracts
B. arthritis and hypertension
C. pneumonia and injuries from falls
D. hypertension and infections
B. arthritis and hypertension
Which disease in now being referred to as an epidemic among the Native American population?

A. diabetes
B. cancer
C. obesity
D. congestive heart failure
A. diabetes
Examples of reversible dementias in older adults include those caused by all of the follwoing except

A. nutritional deficiencies
B. alcoholism
C. brain tumors
D. Alzheimer's disease
D. Alzheimer's disease
Older adults who are financially and socially disadvantaged are reported to suffer the greatest stress in later life. In terms of its impact on mental health, which of the following pieces of information is used to support this statement?

A. reports of stress from the disadvantaged
B. subjective reports from health professionals
C. higher rates of obesity among the older disadvantaged
D. higher rates of psychosis and hospitalizations among the older disadvantaged
D. higher rates of psychosis and hospitalizations among the older disadvantaged
One projected reason that older adults may develop serious drinking problems in old age is

A. decreased leisure time
B. loneliness
C. a lifelong pattern of excessive drinking
D. increased financial resources
B. loneliness
Secondary depression in older adults is the result of

A. a sudden illness
B. death of a family member
C. side effects of medications
D. loss of income
C. side effects of medications
Which of the following is one of the reasons there are racial disparities in the health of older adult minorities?

A. at a younger age, minorities are less likely to be covered by health insurance and have access to health care
B. Older minorities are less likely to have hazardous jobs in their younger years
C. Minorities are generally in better health than Caucasians throughout their life span
D. Older minorities are less likely to have worked in areas with high pollution and toxins.
A. at a younger age, minorities are less likely to be covered by health insurance and have access to health care
Older adults may shy away from professional attention to their mental health needs for all of the following reasons except

A. fear that psychiatric visit may precipitate commitment to a nursing home
B. supportive response for such care from their family and friends
C. fear of the need for follow-up visits and the resultant loss of independence
D. a belief that they may not be curable if the psychiatrist does not immediately assure them that they will get well
B. supportive response for such care from their family and friends
One of the important factors in the labor force reduction seen after a person reaches the age of 45 is

A. career dissatisfaction
B. geographic relocation of spouse
C. reductions in force
D. disability
D. disability
The American disability movement has

A. focused its attention on middle-aged adults
B. made significant improvements for older adults
C. tended to focus on younger disabled people
D. allowed older adult to escape from social marginality
C. tended to focus on younger disabled people
In coping with chronic disease and disability, older adults are caught in the middle of which of the two contradictory principles?

A. being autonomous versus needing institutionalized help
B. doing what professionals suggest versus trying to get well
C. adapting to being the caretakers rather than the recipients of care
D. seeking medical help versus accepting assistance from providers
A. being autonomous versus needing institutionalized help
One of the obligations of the sick role identified by Talcott Parsons is

A. exemption from normal role responsibilities while the person is ill
B. the responsibility to seek medical help
C. exemption from self-care responsibilities
D. the obligation to remain ill
B. the responsibility to seek medical help
In terms of sick role behaviors, older Americans are expected to

A. behave in the same manner as other age groups
B. continue their normal responsibilities
C. use the privileges of the sick role without the obligation to get well
D. want to, and try to, get well
C.use the privileges of the sick wole without the obligation to get well
When older adults experience symptoms they perceive as serious, the first thing they are likely to do is

a. seek professional medical advice
b. ignore the symptoms
c. consult with family and friends
d. isolate themselves
c. consult with family and friends
The main predictor of nursing home placement among older adults is

a. caregiver stress
b. age
c. personal choice of the older adult
d. degree of disability
d. degree of disability
One of the major problems in the provision of long-term care management of older adults is

a. numerous professional organizations that coordinate services
b. lack of communication between specialists
c. effective long-term management by Medicaid
d. low compliance of older adults to treatment recommendations
b. lack of communication between specialists
In general, the more closely a function is tied to physical capacities, the

a. more likely it will remain at a constant level of performance with increasing age
b. easier it is to differentiate it from psychological processes
c. more likely it is to decline with age
d. easier it is to evaluate
c. more likely it is to decline with age
When older adults lose both vision and hearing,

a. adaptation can be a serious problem
b. no adaptive techniques actually work
c. it is considered a normal part of aging
d. adaptation can be made with no significant problems
a. adaptation can be a serious problem
In terms of perception among older adults,

a. the time between successive stimuli must be increased for accurate perception to occur
b. there is no change as aging increases
c. there is a gradual decrease in perceptual ability until death
d. decreased perceptual abilities seriously hamper behavior as early as 60 years of age
a. the time between successive stimuli must be increased for accurate perception to occur
Age-related limits on performance are usually set by the

a. effectors
b. central processed
c. sensory signals
d. motor responses
b. central processes
Response time in the older adult
a. tends to be similar to young adults when only verbal reaction time is considered
b. begins to decrease well before the age of fifty
c. may change because older adults do not check and recheck their results
d. has a clear influence on higher processes such as cognition
a. tends to be similar to young adults when only verbal reaction time is considered
A major problem with attempting to document changes in memory that may or may not accompany physical aging is

a. developing tests that measure only learning
b. measuring task performance
c. determining which losses are the result of aging and which are caused by illness
d. dealing with the lack of individual variability in this process
c. determining which losses are the result of aging and which are caused by illness
For all but very ill people,

a. the amount of information stored in memory continues to increase over time
b. new information is not associated with familiar information
c. the loss of memory is always reversible
d. people who remain active with family and friends in their later years show the same decrease in memory function as isolated older adults
a. the amount of information stored in memory continues to increase over time
Margaret Jones is an 84-year-old woman who feels in charge of herself, her environment, and her life choices. She would be considered to be

a. an externally oriented person
b. an internally oriented person
c. field dependent
d. macrosocial
b. an internally oriented person
Personality provides

a. a system within which each person's behavior remains fairly consistent over time
b. an abstract construct that offers little help in explaining behaviors
c. researchers with black and white explanations of adult behaviors
d. an explanation of why the behaviors of older adults fluctuate so significantly with age
a. a system within which each person's behavior remains farily consistent over time
Erickson's development tasks are

a. not contingent developmental stages
b. both incremental and contingent on meeting previous stages
c. accepted as both valid and reliable
d. not applicable to older adults
b. both incremental and contingent on meeting previous stages
In the activity theory of aging, the older person

a. continues a middle-age lifestyle, denying the existence of old age as long as possible
b. must develop a strong sense of integrity
c. develops ego differentiation rather than role preoccupation
d. finds psychological pleasures rather than becoming absorbed with health problems or physical limitations
a. continues a middle-age lifestyle. denying the existence of old age as long as possible
Mr. Jones, a 70-year-old man, has decreased the number of activities and social contacts he makes with each passing year. According to the disengagement theory,

a. this change is abnormal, and Mr. Jones should substitute new activities and friends to replace the lost activities
b. this scenario is not consistent with the expectations of aging among older adults
c. this gradual withdrawal is satisfying only to Mr. Jones, not to society
d. Mr. Jones will achieve satsifaction in late life by reflecting on these past activities and his accomplishments
d. Mr. Jones will achieve satisfaction in late life by reflecting on these past activities and his accomplishments
Jack Wong was a successful politician. He was very active in the Republican party as a young adult, ran a successful mayoral campaign as an adult, and was elected to the city council as a retired person. Mr. Wong's life could arguably support which aging theory?

a. Exchange theory
b. Peck's developmental stage theory
c. activity theory
d. continuity theory
d. continuity theory
In the exchange theory of aging,

a. elements are always rational and conscious
b. the exchange depends on the resources that the actors bring to the encounter
c. the actual exchange resources are as important at the ones the person is assumed to have
d. an active lifestyle is eincouraged
b. the exchange depends on the resources that the actors bring to the encounter
Self-esteem among older adults

a. does not necessarily decrease as physical appearance changes
b. decreases with age no matter their level of health
c. remains consistent with lefelong patterns
d. decreases because older adults believe society knows their worth better than they know themselves
a. does not necessarily decrease as physical appearance changes
Gerontologists consider mental disorders in late life to

a. be genetically predetermined.
b. be the result of age-related physical decline.
c. primarily affect high-income groups.
d. be the result of psychological and social stress placed on individuals as they try to adjust to their problems
d. be the result of psychological and social stress placed on individuals as they try to adjust to their problems
A leading cause of long-term depression in the elderly is

a. income problems
b. chronic pain
c. deaths of relatives and friends
d. cardiovascular disease
b. chronic pain
Examples of factors that result in reversible dementias include all of the following except

a. nutrition
b. alcohol abuse
c. medication side effects
d. brain tissue loss
d. brain tissue loss
The incidence of mental disorders among older adults

a. is a normal part of aging
b. shows a sigificant increase in late-life schizophrenia
c. shows a significant increase in dementias after the age of 75
d. affects a majority of Americans over the age of 65
c. shows a significant increase in dementias after the age of 75
The term socialization refers to

a. the rights, obligations, and expected behaviors associated with a particular social status
b. a group's distinctive way of life, such as values, beliefs, and attitudes
c. the process by which a certain group encourages or coerces its members to learn and comform to its culture
d. the standard, model, or pattern of behavior expected in society
c. the process by which a certain group encourages or coerces its members to learn and conform to its culture
A life course research project documents the ideal age-related progression or sequences of roles and group memberships that indivduals are expected to follow as they mature. This particular type of life course is known as the

a. statistical life course
b. biological life course
c. macrosocial life course
d. cultural life course
d. cultural life course
Most members of society believe there is

a. an orderly progression of accomplishments that require coordination and that should fall within a certain age range.
b. a randomness to life and no orderly progression of accomplishment
c. an orderly progression for certain roles (e.g., mothers) but not for occupational activities
d. an orderly progression for occupational activities but not for parental or child social roles
a. an orderly progression of accomplishments that require coordination and that should fall within a certain age range
Age synchronization is

a. the relationship between timing of occupational roles of husbands and that of their wives
b. a person's ability to manage family and career within the right sequence and within the right time period
c. the ability to negotiate occupational issues within a certain age category
d. the consideration of decisions only from the perspective of the individual
b.a person's ability to manage family and career within the right sequence and within the right time period
Role anticipation is

a. the fitting of role demands to the individual's capabilities
b. learning the rights, obligations, resources, and outlook of a position one will occupy in the future
c. the process of tailoring a role to the person's needs and capabilities
d.the stucy of the origin, development, organization, and functioning of society
b. learning the rights, oligations, resources, and outlook of a position one will occupy in the future
Which of the following is not an important reason to consider in regard to retirement from the workplace environment?

a. significant emotional attachments can be developed at the workplace
b. skills used in the work setting are not always transferable to a retirement setting
c. jobs can provide a sense of mastery over the environment
d. retirement usually results in the onset of poor health
d. retirement usually results in the onset of poor health
John Linder is an 80-year-old man who relies on his adult children to buy his groceries and a home health agency to care for his health needs. This is an example of

a. formal support networks
b. informal support networks
c. the use of both formal and informal support networks
d. inappropriate dependency on social support networks
c. the use of both formal and informal support networks
Cross-cultural studies on aging have indicated that researchers must

a. dpecify which age is being discussed
b. use the general category of "elderly" to study all age-related issues
c. consider the normative statements of a key informant as a reliable indicator of behavior
d. not be concerned about rapid social change in a culture because that never effects the status of the eldrely
a. specify which age is being discussed
Which of the following is one of the most important psychosocial aspects of person's home?

a. the security of the home equity it has accrued
b. the home's ability to provide a residence for adult children
c. the home's ability to provide an essential source of continuity for older adults
d. as a place where repair skills are always needed
c. the home's ability to provide an essential source of continuity for older adults
The majority of older adults live

a. with family
b. in independent housing
c. in skilled nursing homes
d. in custodial care settings
b. in independent housing
The maintenance of stable, close friendships with significant other is

a. a key factor in a successful adjustment to retirement and aging
b. helpful but not critical to successful aging
c. a minor issue is successful aging
d. more important to successful aging in men than it it for women
a. a key factor in a successful adjustment to retirement and aging
In the United States, older persons are currently found disproportionately in

a. large urban communities and suburbs
b. large urban communities and small towns
c. small towns and suburbs
d. rural farm areas and small towns
b. large urban communities and small towns
In old age, most people

a. have relationships only with adult children
b. have relationships only with adult children and health care providers
c. still have a network of friends, but it provides no support
d. maintain a small but effective network of close friendships
d. maintain s small but effective network of close friendships
In general, older adults tend to expect

a. family members to provide both physical and emotional support
b. friends to provide physical and emotional support
c. family members to provide physical support and friends to provide emotional support
d. health care providers to make arrangments for any physical care needs they may have
c. family members to provide physical support and friends to provide emotional support
As part of research on the urban geographic location of older adults, a study design

a. cannot contain just one or two variables; multiple variables must be analyzed
b. must use one variable, such as family size or ethnic background, to make the design as "tight" as possible
c. should focus on the suburbs where most older adults live
d. should not factor in socioeconomic status or educational level
a. cannot contain just one or two variables; multiple variables must be analyzed
For individuals who are part of a couple, marital satisfaction tends to

a. deteriorate with retirement
b. hit a low point when the children are infants
c. improve steadily after the children leave home
d. hit a high point when the children are teenagers
c. improve steadily after the children leave home
Caregiving activities offered by couples

a. meet physical needs only
b. are generally not a component of older couples' relationships
c. are more important to elderly women than they are to elderly men
d. meet the needs of both partners for physical care and emotional comfort and safety
d. meet the needs of both partners for physical care and emotional comfort and safety
An older adult's sexual interest

a. declines steadily with age
b. reflects lifelong patterns of sexual interest
c. reflects only needs for emotional intimacy, not physical intimacy
d. is not unduly affected by physical problems, medical treatments, or medications
b. reflects lifelong patterns of sexual interest
The majority of American families with older family members

a. isolate and do not care for older family members
b. care for their older members with the same sense of moral responsibility as they have when caring for their children
c. give help to and receive help from older family member
d. help younger family members when needed but tend to isolate older adults
c. give help to and receive help from the older family member
Most adult children who live with their parents

a. have never lived apart from them
b. do so to meet the older adult's needs
c. do so as the result of a crisis in the adult child's life
d. do so only to meet their own needs, not the older adult's needs
a. have never lived apart from them
Participation in community activities

a. tends to be at a peak in middle and later life
b. decreases in middle age
c. increases consistently with age
d. is not influenced by issues such as transportation and health problems
a. tends to be at a peak in middle and later life
For older adults, the most important reason income reduction at retirement is significant is because

a. it triggers other significant adjustments in such areas as diet and medical follow-up
b. it forces most elders onto public assistance
c. it forces a housing relocation for the majority of older people
d. adult children end up financially supporting their parents
a. it triggers other significant adjustments in such areas as diet and medical follow-up
What does the income distribution patern look like in the United States?

a. Slow increase from age 15 to 24; slow increase at age 45 to 54; sharp decrease at age 75 and above
b. slow increase from age 15 to 24; peak at age 45 to 54; continued increase at age 75 and above
c. sharp increase from age 15 to 24; peak at age 45 to 54; maintenance of income levels at ages 75 and above
d. sharp increase from age 15 to 24; peak at age 45 to 54; sharp decrease at age 75 and above
d. sharp increase from age 15 to 24; peak at age 45 to 54; sharp decrease at age 75 and above
Analyzing income solely by age

a. is the most objective way to look at aging
b. is complicated by diversity in employment, gneder, reace, and so on
c. is a valid and reliable method of analyzing all the social dimensions of aging
d. is not an important variable to consider
b. is complicated by diversity in employment, gneder, reace, and so on
Which of the following is considered a direct source of income?

a. cash income that can be used for any purpose
b. home equity
c. federal programs sucj as medicare and medicaid
d. direct service provision for cash payment, such as meals-on-whells
a. cash income that can be used for any purpose
The most valuable asset older people tend to have is

a. home equity
b. savings accounts
c. stock and bonds
d. retirement pensions
a. home equity
In terms of current market trends, the 55- to 64-year-old group

a. has little to no impact on sales of consumer goods
b. leads other age categories in sales for a wide variety of purchases
c. is far below the national average for spending in categories such as vacation travel
d. responds to the "herd instinct" of buying what is currently fashionable
b. leads other age categories in sales for a wide variety of purchases
In the coming decades, it is projected that businesses will

a. focus marketing on middle-age groups
b. focus on very narrow product lines for older adults
c. put less and less market attention on the older adult population
d. try to develop more products and services for the older adult population
d. try to develop more products and services for the older adult population
Mr. Trayner is a 70-ear-old widower. He lives alone on Social Security benefits and a very small savinga account. He has very limited contact with friends, family, or neighbors. In terms of economic exploitation, this individual is

a. at low risk because of his isolation
b. at high risk because of all the characteristics listed
c. at low risk for financial exploitation but high risk for medical quackery schems
d. at high risk for medical quackery but low risk for financial fraud schemes
b. at high risk because of all the characteristics listed
Which of the following is one of the most common reasons older adults get involved with medical quackery schemes?

a. encouragement from adult children
b. lower cost of treatment
c. lack of faith in the medical establishment
d. to try to find relief from chronic physical pain
d. to try to find relief from chronic physical pain
The majority of Americans are motivated to work

a. solely as a way to earn a living
b. as a means to earn wages and expend energy in a meaningful way
c. to protect themselves from age discrimination
d. to ensure labor force participation after the age of 55
b. as a means to earn wages and expend energy in a meaningful way
When discussing age discrimination, most Americans believe that

a. employers engage in age discrimination
b. employers do not engage in age discrimination
c. age discrimination is practiced against younger workers but not against middle-age and older adults
d. age discrimination is practiced against older women but not against older men
a. employers engage in age discrimination
Two pressures on older adults to retire early include the

a. decreased number of older workers and increased pressure from younger workers
b. increased scarcity of jobs and decreased discrimination against women and minorities
c. increased scarcity of jobs and increased discrimination against women and minorities
d. decreased scarcity of jobs and increased pressure from labor unions
b. increased scarcity of jobs and decreased discrimination against women and minorities
Currently, consumer spending by older adults,

a. remains constant with historical data on older adults and spending patterns
b. shows more spending on discretionary items than other age groups
c. represents a small and economically uninfluential consumer base
d. is expected to decline with the projected demographic changes in the older adult population
b. shows more spending on discretionary items than other age groups
In terms of retirement, the majority of older Americans choose to

a. retire after the age of 70
b. retire before the age of 65
c. retire at 65
d. retire at the new mandatory age of 75
b. retire before the age of 65
Since the 1980s, what is the major reason middle-age and older people leave the labor force?

a. disability
b. increasing age
c. desire to retire
d. pressure from spouse to retire
c. desire to retire
In terms of Social Security benefits, older minority groups tend to

a. receive larger benefit amounts than whited
b. receive smaller benefit amounts than whites
c. have their benfits calculated with a different formula
d. only receive Supplemental Security Income
b. receive smaller benefit amounts than whites
The major reason identified for discrepancies between the Social Security benefits received by whites and minority groups is

a. supplementation of social security benefits from other federal programs
b. generous retirement programs for minorities
c. past discrimination that has kept minority wages low throughout the working years
d. numerous employment opportunities for older minorities as they age
c. past discrimination that has kept minority wages low throughout the working years
In terms of retirement, older women

a. have pension benefits comparable to those of men
b. never rate their retirement incomes as adequate
c. are less likely than men to retire from jobs characterized by low status and low earning
d. are more likely to retire early if they are married and later if they are not married
d. are more likely to retire early if they are married and later if they are not married
Currently, the majority of preretirement programs of large organizations

a. provide comprehensive financial ans psychological counseling
b. offer a discussion of what workers can expect to make during retirement years
c. provide maximum freedom of choice so the worker can decide when it is best to retire
d. help people emotionally and physically withdraw from the workplace
b. offer a discussion of what workers can expect to make during retirement years
One projection for the year 2010, when baby boomers begin to retire, is that

a. no labor shortages will occur because of the young, well-trained upcoming labor force
b. social security benefits will be adequate for all retirees
c. labor shortages will occur and companies may need to develop opportunities that encourage older workers not to retire
d. a labor glut will encourage employers to pressure older workers into even earlier retirement
c. labor shortages will occur and companies may need to develop opportunities that encourage older workers not to retire
The term COLA refers to

a. socail security laws related to disabilities
b. social security adjustments meant to offset the effects of inflation on fixed incomes
c. medicare adjustments related to rates of nursing home coverage
d. provision of disability beneficiaries with a voucher older adults can use to purchase vocational rehabilitation services
b. social security adjustments meant to offset the effects of inflation on fixed incomes
For an older adult, holding opinions on contemporary societal issues is considered

a. very unusual behavior
b. an example of political participation
c. reflective solely of his or her social class
d. an example of bloc voting
b. an example of political participation
In terms of voting participation, middle-age and older adults are

a. considerably more active than younger people
b. considerably less active than younger people
c. more likely to discuss issues rather than actually vote on them
d. less educated than young people on the issues
a. considerably more active than younger people
The primary reason for the decline in voter particiation among older adults is

a. lack of interest in the political process
b. decrease in visual acuity
c. lack of adequate knowledge of issues
d. poor health
d. poor health
Mr. Smith is a 70-year-old man with no political experience and a high school education who has decided to run for the city council. Which of the following will be his biggest election obstacle?

a. gender
b. lack of a law degree
c. age
d. lack of experience
d. lack of experience
In terms of opinions about issues, older adults tend to

a. become more conservative with age
b. reflect their vested interests rather than lifelong liberal or conservative leanings
c. become more liberal with age
d. reflect their lifelong pattern of either liberalism or conservatism
b. reflect their vested interests rather than lifelong liberal or conservative leanings
In terms of voting behavior, the elderly are more likely to

a. vote in terms of geographic region only
b. feel a strong sense of power because of their age
c. vote as a bloc on all issues
d. coalesce their voting power when they feel there is an issue vital to their interests
d. coalesce their voting power when they feel there is an issue vital to their interests
In terms of voting behavior, the elderly are more likely to

a. vote in terms of geographic region only
b. feel a strong sense of power because of their age
c. vote as a bloc on all issues
d. coalesce their voting power when they feel there is an issue vital to their interests
d. coalesce their voting power when they feel there is an issue vital to their interests
Research has shown that political orientation is

a. stable in young adulthood
b. malleable in old age
c. malleable in young adulthood, but increasingly stable with age
d. stable in young adulthood, but increasingly malleable with age
c. malleable in young adulthood, but increasingly stable with age
When the general public is negatively affected by events and joins forces to change a situation, the activity is called

a. a social movement
b. industrialization
c. socialization process
d. age segregation
a. a social movement
One of the two anticipated results of the Townsend Plan was that it would

a. improve the economic conditions of older adults
b. lead to social security act of 1935
c. add money to an already booming economy
d. provide support for families who were caring for older family members
a. improve the economic conditions of older adults
What is the major advantage of a social movement?

a. development of lifetime friendships
b. increase in the public's awareness of a problem
c. pressure on politicians to respond to the demands of the social movement
d. consistent generation of supportive responses from coporations
b. increase in the public's awareness of a problem
Compared to the power of lobbying groups such as the AMA and the NRA, the AARP is

a. a more powerful lobbying group than either of these organizations
b. a weak political player
c. on an equal power base with these groups
d. a strong political player that will become an even stronger lobbying force in the next ten years
b. a weak political player
Which of the following is a major factor in the degree of federal financial support for older Americans?

a. an increase in the medical needs of the young old
b. backlash from young Americans who believe that programs for older Americans are too expensive
c. projected decrease in the number of old-old Americans
d. strong support of federal assistance programs for older adults from middle-aged children
d. strong support of federal assistance programs for older adults from middle-aged children
The social security program (Title II of the Social Security Act) was designed as

a. an insurance trust fund with benefits based upon a retired worker's contributions
b. the major source of financial support for older, retired Americans
c. an advocacy program for older adults
d. a direct service provider for older adults
a. an insurance trust fund with benefits based upon a retired worker's contributions
Between 2000 and 2027, the age to retire and receive full social security benefits moves from age 65 to age 67. What was the primary reason Congress passed this admendment?

a. to ensure the economic solvency of the program
b. to increass the amount of benefits provided to current retirees
c. to increase the number of retired Americans
d. to ensure the solvency of the US labor force
a. to ensure the economic solvency of the program
Mrs. Jones is an 85-year-old woman who is disabled and in the lowest income bracket for her age. Which federal program or combination of programs would be appropriate for her?

a. medicare and medicaid
b. medicare, medicaid, and SSI
c. medicare and SSI
d. medicaid
b. medicare, medicaid, and SSI
In the United States, the chief fiduciary agents of long-term care are

a. medicaid and SSI
b. the VA and medicare
c. medicaid and medicare
d. the VA and medicaid
d. the VA and medicaid
A major problem of the 1981 White House Conference on Aging was

a. the president's goal of decreasing federal spending, particularly in entitlement programs
b. Democratic control of the Congress
c. the president's goal of increasing money to entitlement programs
d. the lack of public support for funds to be earmarked for entitlement programs
a. the president's goal of decreasing federal spending, particularly in entitlement programs
The Administration on Aging was formed to

a. provide assistance and services to older individuals and their families in all regions of the United States
b. manage the bureaucratic aspects of the social security system
c. provide supplemental income to poverty-level older adults
d. implement the mandatory retirement age guidlines in the United States
a. provide assistance and services to older individuals and their families in all regions of the United States
The majority of this state and federally funded program goes for nursing home coverage for elderly and disabled Americans. Which program does this describe?

a. medicare
b. medicaid
c. state outreach program for insurance and public assistance
d. elder rights and legal assistance program
b. medicaid
Which of the following is one of the problems cited by critics of federally funded programs for the elderly?

a. older adults are stigmatized for seeking services
b. older adults are given too much freedom to choose when selecting programs
c. middle-age adults do not support these programs
d. older adults receive less money for services than children
a. older adults are stigmatized for seeking services
An example of active euthanasis in a terminally ill person is

a. intentionally giving a person a lethal dose of morphine
b. a request by a terminally ill person to stop all life-sustaining drugs
c. a request by the terminally ill person to remove medical support systems
d. deciding not to put a terminally ill person on a ventilator when he or she is going into respiratory failure
a. intentionally giving a person a lethal dose of morphine
Due to problems in self-care activities, a recently widowed 85-year-old man faces the prospect of institutionalization. Over the last three months he has lost fifteen pounds and expresses ongoing feelings of deep sadness. In addition to issues of bereavement, professionals must also evaluate the possibility of all of the following except

a. passive suicide
b. lack of self-care abilities
c. active suicidal thoughts
d. no further evaluation is needed. The severity of this response is normal for this age
d. no further evaluation is needed. The severity of this response is normal for this age
To establish and maintain a caring relationship with a dying person, one should frist plan to

a. provide the physical care for the dying person no matter the physical or emotiional costs
b. develop interactive activities to keep the dying person alert and engaged in conversations
c. explain one's beliefs about death to the dying person
d. spend time reflecting on personal beliefs and values about death before becoming involved
d. spend time reflecting on personal beliefs and values about death before becoming involved
Kubler-Ross's research on dying has been criticized because it

a. fails to realize the individual variations found among dying people
b. does not include the concept of anger
c. does not include progressive stages
d. fails to include the concept of bargaining
a. fails to realize the individual variations found among dying people
Bereavement includes the process of adapting to a person's death and may consist of all of the following except

a. physical responses such as frequent sighing, tightness in the chest, and shortness of breath
b. well-defined progression of grieving through identifiable stages
c. intellectual responses, such as developing an idealized memory of the person
d. emotional responses that can include overwhelming sadness and preoccupation with thoughts of the deceased
b. well-defined progression of grieving through identifiable stages
Mrs. Jones, an 80-year-old woman in good health. When she is in a group in family functions, other relatives refer to her as "she" or "her" and she is never included in the group's conservation. This is an example of

a. anticipatory grief
b. social death
c. intellectual bereavement
d. secularization of aging
b. social death
Mrs. Jones, an 80-year-old woman, has been diagnosed as being physically dead. According to the Harvard Medical School guidelines, this person would

a. be tested again in twelve hours to confirm death
b. have minimal reflexes
c. show a minimal pattern of breathing
d. exhibit a flat electroencephalogram
d. exhibit a flat electroencephalogram
The contemporary definition of the general term euthanasia has been identified as

a. dying with no pain or suffering
b. the active implementation of a planned death
c. giving the patient a lethal dose of a drug
d. the deliberate shortening of a person's life
d. the deliberate shortening of a person's life
Those at high risk for a suicide attempt would include

a. noninstitutionalized older adults who have frequent social contacts
b. older white women living alone
c. elderly white men recently diagnosed with a terminal illness
d. elderly African American men recently diagnosed with a terminal illness
c. elderly white men recently diagnosed with a terminal illness
The secularization of death is a way to

a. deal with a traumatic event
b. comfort the family
c. accept death on an emotional level
d. value older adults
a. deal with a traumatic event
In brittle denial, the person

a. acknowledges his or her death and its implications
b. represses the fact that he or she is dying
c. plans for his or her death
d. focuses on what remains rather what is being lost
b. represses the fact that he or she is dying
Mrs. Smith is terminally ill. She wants family members with her constantly and actively seeks them out for emotional support. This behavior is an example of the terminally ill person's need for

a. preserving energy resources
b. safe conduct
c. maintenance of self-esteem
d. inappropriate and self-centered behavior
b. safe conduct
Mrs. White's husband of thirty-five yeas passed away one year ago. She is brought to the er with complaints of shortness of breath, racing heart, nausea, and a feeling of emptiness. A knowledgeable health professional would understand that these symptoms may be

a. a heart attack
b. normal signs of bereavement
c. normal signs of bereavement that should be gone by this time
d. abnormal signs of bereavement
b. normal signs of bereavement
The purpose of respite care is to

a. minimize the trauma of death for the remaining family members
b. decrease the physical burdens of the patient
c. help the family come to terms with their denial
d. provide temporary care to terminally ill people and their families in order to prevent caregiver burnout
d. provide temporary care to terminally ill people and their families in order to prevent caregiver burnout
Comprehensive hospice services

a. can only be provided in the home setting
b. are not covered by medicare
c. allow the person to die at home or in a homelike setting
d. end when the terminally ill person dies
c. allow the person to die at home or in a homelike setting
Most families seek institutional care for the dying person because

a. institutions can provide better care
b. care is so overwhelming that sometimes families cannot provide the level of care needed
c. medicare will not pay for home-based hospice services
d. historically it has not been socially acceptable for Americans to die ar home
b. care is so overwhelming that sometimes families cannot provide the level of care needed
Those who believe it is a person's right to know he or she is terminally ill argue that this knowledge

a. may close out hope and hasten death
b. may lead to a deep, immobilizig depression
c. will completely destroy any hope of recovery
d. empowers people to make both financial and emotional preparations for death
d. empowers people to make both financial and emotional preparations for death
Gender differences in views of death indicate that

a. women see death with an antagonistic mind-set, while men see death as merciful
b. middle-age men have resolved their fear of death
c. women see death as merciful
d. older adults of both sexes worry more about being dead than they do about dying
c. women see death as merciful
A sacred view of death

a. looks at elements that human can control
b. removes death from the home setting
c. attempts to explain elements of life that people generally do not understand and cannot control
d. consistently views death as a traumatic event
c. attempts to explain elements of life that people generally do not understand and cannot control