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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
hydrophilic headgroups
choline
ethanolamine
serine
glycerol
inositol
nomenclature for phospholipids
phosphatidyl(headgroup)
e.g. phosphatidylcholine
phospholipid movements
-slow flipping (transbilayer/transverse)
-fast lateral
-fast rotational
-fast flexing hydrocarbon chains
Describe structure of cellular membranes
-fluid mosaic model
-hydrophilic headgroup, hydrophobic tails
-unsaturated/ saturated fatty acid tails
-cholesterol/derivatives
Describe function of cellular membranes
-fluid mosaic model: signal transduction, energy transduction, protein/lipid synthesis
-compartmentalize cell functns, concentrate enzyme/substrate, orient proteins for interaxn
major components of cell membrane
-phospholipids
-cholesterol/ derivatives
Describe fluid mosaic model
-fluid lipid bilayer interspersed with macromolecules such as proteins, cholesterol
-fluidity allows orientation and concentration of proteins for interaction
compare/contrast simple vs. facilitated diffusion
-simple: nonpolar, uncharged molecule only
-facilitated: protein moves charged/uncharged molecule
-both requires movemnt down gradient
compare/contrast ion channel vs. ionophore
-ionophore: ion complexes w/ txport molecule
-ion channel: pore
compare/contrast primary vs. secondary transport
-both active transport, against electrochemical gradient
-1': against electrochemical gradient, transporter req ATP directly
-2': molecule moving down its gradient drives other molecule to move against its gradient
give example of 1' active transport
Na+-K+ pump
amino acid uptakes uses what type of transport?
2' active transport w/ Na+
proton pump in stomach uses what type of transport?
2' active transport w/ K+
fructose uses what type of transport into the apical side of the cell?
facilitated diffusion
glucose/galactose uses what type of transport into the apical side of the cell?
2' active transport w/ Na+
uptake of fats/lipids uses what type of diffusion?
simple diffusion
Write simple eqn for metabolism of substrate by enzyme to make product
E+ S<--> ES --> E + P
Importance of Ubiquitination
targets proteins for degradation
Importance of Methylation
controls CpG islands near gene promoters that regulate transcription
Importance of Acetylation/Deacetylation
Deacetylation unwinds chromatin for transcription
Importance of Phosphorylation
Important for signal transduction or direct enzyme activation
compare/contrast structure function relationship of Hb & Mb
2 structures proteins: globular & fibrous.
-Structure of Hb/Mb is globular. Water soluble, function as catalysts, transporters, regulators of metabolic pathways
-Fibrous proteins low water solubility function in structural roles
Describe how Bohr effect protons mediate O2 release & delivery
More H+ dissociated from H2CO3 pushes the equation to the left towards T form of Hb, releasing O2
Describe how pH regulates O2 binding to Hb
more acidic environment, Hb more likely to dissociate O2 (b/c H+ pushes eqn to left, T form)
Describe how O2 binding to Hb is regulated by BPG
BPG stabilizes T-Hb, which is the state where Hb has lower affinity for O2, allowing O2 to be delivered to tissues
Discuss mechanism by which Hb transports NO
Hb binds to NO to protect it from degradation; when changing to T form, NO is exposed and transferred to glutathione
Discuss the transport of CO2 via carbamino-hemoglobin
CO2 binds to NH2 terminal groups of Hb, releasing H+ & stabilizing T-Hb so that O2 released in tissues