Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

6 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
- Appeared 3 to 4 million years ago in southern and eastern Africa
- Humanlike creatures called primates
- Mary and Louis Leakey excavated hominid fossils in the Great Rift Valley
- "Lucy;" an Australopithecine fossil, found in 1974
- Three major differences from earlier primates: bipedalism (ability to walk upright), a sizable brain (enables abstract thought and fine motor control), and a larynx (allows for complex speech
- Thought-processing ability led to alteration of the natural environment to suit human needs
Homo Sapiens
- Earliest variant, the Neanderthal, appeared 100,000 to 250,000 years ago
- More advanced was the Cro-Magnon, appeared 60,000 to 100,000 years ago during the Paleolithic Age
- Both used advanced tools, wore clothing, created semipermanent or permanent dwellings, and organized into social groups
- Homo sapiens, modern humans, emerged 100,000 to 200,000 years ago
Paleolithic Era- Economy
- Called Old Stone Age (ca. 10,000 to 2.5 million years ago)
- Greatest concerns: steady and plentiful food supply and clothing
- Stone and bone tools incuded spears, bows, arrows, fishhooks, harpoons, clay pots
- Humans were nomadic hunters and gatherers
- Predates agricultural societies
Paleolithic Era- Society
-Social groups: extended families grew into clans, clans mixed with neighboring groups to form tribes with sophisticated organization, including chiefs, leaders, and religious figures
-Organized warfare with weapons: rocks, clubs, knives, spears, axes, and bows and arrows
- Worship of deities; religious rituals included sacrifices to gods, goddesses, and spirits
- Expression through art and music; examples include cave paintings and flutes
- Division of labor assigned by gender: men hunted, women gathered
Neolithic Era- Origins
-Earliest evidence of sedentary agriculture dates to between 10,000 and 8000 BCE
- Called New Stone Age (8000-5000 BCE), the origins of agricultural society
- Domestication of animals and cultivation of crops
- The earliest method of cultivation was slash-and-burn-agriculture
- Earliest agricultural societies appeared in southwestern Asia and spread to India, Europe, and Asia; Mesoamerica and East Asia most likely developed agricultural techniques independently
- People settled down and developed complex societies
Neolithic Era- Culture
- Agriculture allowed for a food surplus, which in turn led to an increase in population
- Permanent villages appeared as people turned to farming and away from hunting and gathering
- Jericho, in modern-day Isreal, was one of the world's first Neolithic villages
- Village life encouraged the development of specialized labor-everyone was no longer dedicated to food production
-Early industries developed in pottery, metallurgy, and textiles
- Specialized labor encouraged the accumulation of wealth and eventually to the emergence of social classes
- Sedentary agricultural societies saw a diminishing of the role and status of women compared with their role and status in hunting and gathering societies