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36 Cards in this Set

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QUALITY FACTOR=Is the operating freq. divided by the bandwidth
Q=fo/Bw

unitless
Is the operating freq. divided by the bandwidth
AXIAL RESOLUTION=Is the minimum reflector separation required along the direction of sound travel to produce separate echoes.
RA=SPL/2 or RA=.77*N/F

RA=mm
LATERAL RESOLUTION=Is the minimum reflector separation in the direction perpendicular to the beam direction that can produce 2 echoes
LA=DB
LA=mm DB=beam width
Artifacts know all four
1. not real 2. missing
3. improperly located 4. Of improper brightness, shape, or size
NYQUIST LIMITS=Aliasing occurs when the Doppler shift exceeds the Nyquist limit
NYQUIST=PRF/2
Axial Resolution is also know as
longitudinal
range
depth
Lateral Resolution is also know as
transverse
angular
azimuthal
NEAR ZONE IS ALSO KNOWN AS
NEAR ZONE
NEAR FIELD
NEAR FIELD
FAR ZONE IS ALSO KNOWN AS
FAR ZONE
FAR FIELD
FRAUNHOFER ZONE
OPERATING FREQUENCY
ALSO KNOWN AS
RESONANCE FREQUENCY
ACOUSTIC VARIABLES
PARTICLE MOTION OR VIBRATION
TEMPERATURE
DENSITY
PRESSURE
SUBSONIC OR INFRASOUND
1-20Hz
RANGE AMBIGUITY
Penetration(cm)x # of focuses x lines per frame x frame rate≤77,000
RANGE OF ULTRASOUND=Artifacts places structures much closer to the surface than they should be.
GREATER THAN 20kHz
Spatial & temporal considerations
SATA= LOWEST VALUE
SPTP= HIGHEST VALUE
RANGE OF ULTRASOUND
GREATER THAN 20kHz
PERIOD=Time for one cycle to occur
T=1/F
μs
microseconds
WAVELENGTH=Is the length of space over which one cycle occurs
ﻼ=C/F
ﻼ=mm C= μs/mm
f=MHz
PULSE DURATION= Is the time that it takes 1 pulse to occur
PD=T * N
SPL= mm ﻼ=MHz
SPATIAL PULSE LENGTH= Is the length of pulse from front to back
SPL=ﻼ * N
SPL= mm ﻼ=MHz
PULSE REPITITION PERIOD= Is the time from the beginning of 1cycle to the beg. Of the next
PRP=1/PRF
PRP=μs
PRF=kHz
IMPEDANCE= Describes the relationship between acoustic pressure & the speed of particle vibrations in a sound wave
=P * C
= RAYLS P=Kg/m³
C= m/s
ATTENUATION= Loss of amplitude & intensity as sound travels thru a medium
A=F/2 * L
dB
ATTENUATION COEFFICIENT= Attenuation occur in each cm the sound wave travels
A=F/2
dB/cm²
AMPLITUDE= Maximum variation that occurs in an acoustic variable
AMPLITUDE=
MAXIMUM VARIATION – NORMAL VALUE
INTENSITY= Is the rate at which energy passes through a unit area
I=P/A

I= W/CM P=W
A=CM
INTENSITY PROPORTION=

If amplitude is doubled intensity is quadrupled. If amp. is halved intensity is quartered
I=A²

I=W/CM A=CM²
PERPINDICULAR INCIDENCE=
Denotes a direction of travel of the u/s wave perpendicular to the boundary between 2 media.
IRC=[2-1] or IRC=IR/II
2+1

W/CM²
Perpindicular incidence
Transmitted intensity coefficient
ITC=1-IRC

W/CM²
OBLIQUE INCIDENCE= Denotes a direction of travel time of the incident u/s that is not perpendicular to the boundary between 2 media
Өt=Өi * C2/C1

UNITS ARE IN ANGLES OR DEGREES
OBLIQUE INCID. When no refraction
Өi=Өr
RANGE= Distance from the transducer to an echo generating structure
d=C/2 * t

d=mm C=mm/μs
t= roundtrip travel time
RANGE
d=.77 * t

mm
RANGE
d=t/13

cm
OPERATING FREQUENCY= Is the preferred or natural frequency of operation for the element
fo=CM/2 * W

Fo=MHz CM=prop. Sp. of trans. ele. W= trans. thkness
NEAR-ZONE LENGTH= The region extending from the element out to a distance of 1 near-zone length
NZL=DT²/4 *ﻼ OR NZL=DT²*f/6

NZL=mm
DT²=mm
ﻼ=mm