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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what resources are used in competition?
-food, nesting sites, or shelter
basic principles of change in forest ecosystems
1. basic concepts
2. site factors
3. biotic interactions
4. historical factors
=stress and shade tolerant, long lived, determinant growth, low productivity, seed reproduction
factors influencing later successional changes
-growth rate
-stress tolerance
-later stage recruitment
-site changes
basic concepts
environment can be divided into 2 distint facets
1. biotic
2. abiotic
2 factors influencing species establishment?
1. are reproductive propagules present?
2. can/will they germinate and survive?
stolan-above ground roots
rhizome- below ground roots
(negative interaction)
-interaction at a cost to both species
-occurs when two species are attempting to use the same resource which is of limited supply
growth rate
-growth rates fast growing species will dominate early
-death due to:
random disturbances
effects of animals
environmental extremes
historical factors of a site(of a disturbance)
-r-strategies will initially be superior
-k-strategies grow slower but tolerate stress and live longerand in time become superior
=changes in communities over time
-forest from a juvenille to mature state
-abiotic and biotic factors are involved
describe successional patterns?
-they are complex and variable, depending on many factors
what other factors of autecology are important?
-site factors
-site history
-disturbance frequency is important in all successional stages
what do individual species play a major role in?
-in the population dynamics
non-living parameters
(temp, light...)
=giving something to a tree and vice versa, benefiting each other
-everything in the environment a tree needs to live
stress tolerance
-on poor sites, stress tolerant species will eventually dominate
=species come in quickly and take over, short lived, indeterminant growth, shade and stress intolerant, high productivity, vegetative reproduction
which type of competition is stronger?
intra-specific is stronger than inter-specific
intra- within same species
inter- 2 different species
2 types of succession
1. primary- large area without vegetation ex. glaciers
2. secondary- existed ecosystem that was disturbed ex. by fire
=understanding how species respond to (a)biotic stresses
stages of succession
-stand inititation stage
-stem exclusion stage
-understory reinitiation stage
-accelerated succession stage
positive interactions (symbiotic)
changes occuring in forest ecosystems include
1. changes in biological organisms that make up the community
2. change in physical structure of the forest
3. change in abiotic components of the ecosystem
site factors
-abiotic and biotic aspects of the environment determine which species occupy a certain space
-other living organisms
(competition, mutualism)
2 types of biotic interactions
1. positive interactions (symbiotic)
2. negative interactions
negative interactions
-parasitism and predation- one organism utilized by another as their energy source
2 life history strategies from a population ecology approach to succession
1. ruderal
2. tolerant