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66 Cards in this Set

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What is document examination?
The study of handwriting, or type of writing on the source to see if it is real or fake.
What is forensic entomology?
Looks at insects to see how old the body was when the person died.
What is forensic psychiatry?
Studies the behavior and the relationship between if they are normal or can stand on trial.
What is forensic computer and digital analysis?
They can recover deleted files and can track any history of hacking.
What is forensic photography?
Used as evidence to see physically and show courtroom using different techniques as x-rays, ultraviolet, and digital imaging.
What is forensic engineering?
Checking to see how buildings failed on any object seeing if that was by accident or purpose.
What is a forensic odontologist?
May examine teeth to identify a body.
What are latent fingerprints?
They are "hidden" fingerprints left by oils deposited on an object
What is a crime scene investigation unit?
They collect evidence and store it in the lab.
What is a physical scientist?
May perform tests on paint, glass, metals, and solids.
What is toxicology?
determines if someone used drugs or was poisoned.
What is anthropology?
The decay of bones and they see how long they have been dead.
What is polygraph tech?
They determine if a suspect is telling the truth.
What is voice print analysis?
Looks for threatening phone calls and records them.
What is biology?
Used for genetics and the science of living things.
Who is Mathieu Orfillia?
1814 - Father of toxicology. Learned to detect poisons.
Who is Alphonse Bertillion?
1879 - Developed a combination of personal measurements to ID a person
Who is Frances Galton?
1892 - First to study and classify fingerprints.
Who is Karl Landsteiner?
1901 - Discovered ABO blood types.
Who is Leones Lattes?
Could determine blood type from dried blood.
Who was Calvin Goddard?
A firearms and ammunition expert. Could match a bullet from the gun it was fired from.
Who is Albert Osborn?
1910 - An expert in the field of document forgeries.
Who is Walter McCrone?
Microscope expert.
Who is Han Gross?
Promoted the use of scientific principles and methods in a criminal investigation.
Who is Edmond Loccard?
Built the first dedicated forensics lab. Hypothesized that when two objects come into contact, an exchange of materials occurs.
Who is Sir Alec Jeffries?
1894 - Developed the techniques of DNA profiling.
Recent Rapid growth in number of crime labs in the U.S. due to:
-Increase in drug traffic
-Supreme Court decisions in the 1960’s decreased the number of confessions.
-Increased technology
-Demand of DNA profiling
What is physical evidence?
Physical evidence is any evidence introduced in a trial in the form of a physical object.
Seven steps to a crime scene?
1. Secure and isolate the crime scene
2. Record the scene: photographs, sketches, and notes
3. Conduct a search for evidence
4. Collect and package evidence
5. Maintain the chain of custody
6. Obtain controls
7. Submit evidence to the lab
Search Patterns
Used at a crime scene, especially when the scene is very large. These patterns include spiral, grid, line, etc.
Photography
Markers or #s of different pictures. Photos are taken at a distance. Brief description of the overall scene is recorded like, smell, traffic, sounds, vision, feel, etc.
Details are Important
Such as lighting (on/off), drapes (open/closed), weather, or furniture moved. Possible scenarios for the case and writing down conditions.
Collecting Evidence
Putting anything with blood on it, in a paper bag. Putting other evidence in bags given. Mark evidence and write details of where it was located, has it been used, and be careful with not getting your fingerprints on it.
What is Chain of Custody?
Chronological documentation of evidence.
What is Rigor Mortis?
Body begins to stiffen; hair stands up right, and muscles contract.
What is Algor Mortis?
Postmortem cooling, temperature changes.
What is Liver Mortis?
Purple color in dependent areas of body.
What is Postmortem Interval?
Time between the death and attempt to determine the time of death. Time that the fatal injury occurred is not always the time of death.
Initial Decay
a) Bacteria inside the body begins to digest intestine
b) Bacteria exits
c) Blowflies and houseflies arrive within minutes to lay eggs.
d) Eggs hatch and move into body within 24 hours.
Putrefaction
a) Soft tissues begin to liquefy
b) Fluids feed bacteria, which produce hydrogen sulphide, and methane.
Functions of skin
- Protection-from bacteria and sun ultra violet rays
- Temperature-Too hot, sweats, skin color, goose bumps, and shiver.
- Sensory Input, like feeling things
- Remove waste products
Epidermis
Outer most layers (3 layers of epidermis)
- stratum corneum
- stratum lucidum
- stratum basal
What is the papillary layer?
Where finger prints form
What are glands?
Eccrine - all over body
Apocrine - contains pheromone proteins
Finger Print Patterns
Loops - 65% of population
Whorls - Circles with 2 "deltas" 30-35% of population
Arches - From side to side. No deltas.
What is automated fingerprint identification system?
A library of fingerprints that are kept, so when looking into to seeing whose DNA it is quickly determined with their computers.
Skin Color
- Melanin: Increase, production due to sunlight
- Blush: Blood vessels expand toward the surface
- Carotene: An orange pigment accumulates in skin
What is DNA?
Genetic code to build everything in your body.

Adenine-Thymine
Guanine-Cytosine
Deoxyribose and phosphate make up sides of ladder
Watson and Crick
Figured out DNA was in the shape of a double helix.
Rosalind Franklin
Learned it was a double helix using “crystal radiology”.
Mitochondria
Where sugar is burned to get energy.
Erythrocytes
(Red cells) Carry oxygen and CO2
Leucocytes
Fight disease
B Cells
Form a clone army and make antibodies that destroys bacteria
T Cells
Are attack cells that attack to marked cells and calls for help.
Macrophages
Gobble up bacteria, dead cells, and debris.
Luminol
Is a presumptive test for blood.
Blood Types
A AA AO
B BB BO
AB AB
O OO

AB- universal receiver
O- universal donor
John Wayne Gacy
Was an American Serial Killer and rapist who sexually assaulted and murdered at least 33 teenage boys and young men between 1972 and 1978. Gacy buried 26 of his victims in the crawlspace of his home, buried three others elsewhere on his property, and discarded the remains of his last four known victims in a nearby river.
Hitler Diaries
Were a subject of forged letters no one knows if they are true.
OJ Simpson
A football player who was accused of murdering his ex-wife Nicole Simpson and Ronald Goldman were found murdered at Brown’s condo. He was sentenced to court but found not guilty because the glove investigators found did not fit him correctly.
Stephen Scher
He and his friend were out hunting and when he claimed his friend shot himself in the chest while tripping over his shoelace. Police got back involved when they found out Scher had remarried his friend’s wife. Looked more closely at evidence like the gun and found Scher guilty for murder.
Ted Bundy
A serial killer who assaulted and murdered numerous young women during the 1970s, and possibly earlier. After more than a decade of denials, he confessed shortly before his execution to 30 homicides committed in seven states between 1974 and 1978; the true total remains unknown, and could be much higher.
Frank Abagnale Jr
Started to create fraud checking accounts and posing as a pilot, doctor, and attorney. He cost the banks over a million of dollars with his fake checks and forged papers he created. He finally was arrested but then let go and helped police teams identify fraud checks.
Jon Benet Ramsey
She was an American child beauty pageant contestant who was murdered in her home in Boulder, CO. The six year olds body was found in her basement in the home after 8 hours that she was reported missing. It turns out the police didn’t seal off the crime scene allowing her family and neighbors to go in and out of the house during the investigation.
Sam Sheppard
Sam Sheppard was convicted of killing his pregnant wife in their home in the early hours of July 4th, 1954. Sheppard claimed he followed the murderer and had a fight on the beach outside of their house. He was sentenced to jail but then released because they did a test on blood splattering showing that it was not his blood.