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124 Cards in this Set

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Stove Top- heat transmitted from 1 particle to next one- flat bottom pot- coil to pain
Currents- boiling water- rolling pasta- more uniform in cooking
Heat directly to food
Broiling, toasting, grilling, microwave
In others, 2-3 used together but radiant is exception
Dry heat
Roasting, baking, frying (oil,fat), broiling, grilling
Moist heat
Boiling, Poaching, simmering, braising (not entirely covered by liquid), pot roasting, swissing, fricassee
Types of braising
Pot roast- big pieces of meat
Swissing- steaks
Fricassee- chicken pieces
Boiling of water at sea level vs. high altitude
Lower 1 degree Celsius for every 900 feet above sea level
Staph. Aurens
Derived from food handler- sore- touch nose/hair, danger zone, pus involved
C. Perfringens
Cuased by improper cooling of food- need rapid cooling
C. Botulinum
Canned foods (low acid foods); time and temperature penetration of heat to the center of the jar- heat resistant 10 lbs of pressure or 240 degrees Fahrenheit
Sugar- 60 percent
Acidic- pH 3.0
Plunging in ice water to inactivate enzymes that cause color changing and loss of nutrients before freezing
Fruit ripening
Protopectin- underripe- insolube in water and no gel
Leads to pectin- ripe- crisp gel formation
Leads to pectic acid- no gel- overripe
Cooking of fruit
Osmosis- fruit cookd in water- passage of water through a semi-permeable membrane; loses its shape and falls apart

Cooking it in sugar-keeps its shape and has translucent appearance- firm/lustrous/shiny
Acid- Pheophytin (olive green)
Alkaline- Chlorophyllin (bright green)
Fat soluble- don't break down
Purple/red- strawberry
Acid- maintains color
Alkaline- blue/green
Colorless- cauliflower, onion, mushroom
Acid- mantains color
Alkaline- turns yellow
Betalains- red purple, beets
Acid- maintains color
Alkaline- destroys it- brown
Fruit grading
Fresh- size

Frozen/canned- size/shape/color
Butter grading
AA, A, B
Meat Grading
Prime- nice marbling
Choice- in stores
Commercial- combination of select and standard

Utility, cutter, canner
Poultry grading
A, B, C
Part of starch
Brached- involves gelatinization
Change that starch undergoes with moist heat- pasta dishes- rice- spoonbread- cakes, breads, quick breads
Waxy starch- change to contains no amylose- just amylopectin- will not make gel
Linear, involved in gelation
Pudding trapping of liquid in solid- glucose moves closer together known as retrogradation- moves very close and squeezes wate rout- syneresis- overcook proteins
Waxy starch
Contains no amylose- will not make gel
Prevention of lumps
Roux- fat and starch
Sugar and starch
Slurry- liquid and starch into hot
Vitamin, Mineral, FFA
Order of decreasing protein
Bread- more protein than starch
All purpose
Cake- low protein
Gluten formation- 2 parts of gluten and characteristics
Gliadin- extensibility of dough-when it rises in oven it will stretch a little bit

Glutenin- high molecular weight- heavy duty workers- mixing tolerance- elasticity
Batter vs. Dough
Batter- more liquid than flour
Dough- more flour than liquid
Muffins vs. Biscuits
Muffins- batter- liquid- little sugar- little mixing- use liquid fat

Biscuits- dough, solid- stirred milk- knead few strokes and roll to 1/2 to 3/4 thickness inch; buscuits use solid fat-cut in fat stir milk then knead
Gel formation caused by retrogradation
Overcook proteins come together and squeeze out water- baked custard
Amylose line up and chop liquid
Bread- loses moisture- staling use di-glycerides to save it
Creaming vs. One bowl
Creaming- creaming of fat and sugar- dry and liquid alternating- takes more time- dry, liquid, dry, liquid, dry

One bowl- more sugar- more leavening agent in it- use plastic fat- fat must not be cold- mix in two stages- no creaming and air so need more chemical leavaning agent
Egg whites meringue
Soft peak- add sugar (meringue)- sugar stabilizes egg whies
Stiff peak
Cream of tartar and sugar
stabilizes the egg whites- help egg whites to hold onto air that you're whipping into them- air trapping- holds onto it
Angel food cake- air and steam- air holds in and then water in egg whites makes team and it rises
Baking powder and Baking soda
Baking soda reaction- double acting baking powder- SAS-
CO2- biological or chemical leavaning agen
Air as leavaning agent
Whipping eggs, sifting, beating eggs, creaming
Steam as leavaning agent
Liquid (air/water)- egg whites
Yeast bread
105-115 degrees for water to dissolve it in
85 degrees for fermentation
Bread finished cooking?
Gelatinization of starch- coagulation of proteins gluten
When we tap it sound hollow
Temperature- 200 degrees Fahrenheit
Preventing mold in bread
Preservatives- sodium or calcium proponate
Hydrogenation of fat
Add hydrogen to a double bond- goes from unsaturated liquid to saturated solid
Partially hydrogenated vs. butter
Partially- like crisco if complete fat
Butter/margarine- only 80 percent fat- water in oil emulsions
Oil in water emulsions
everything else is oil in water
Water in oil emulsions
Milk- type of emulsion/how is it formed?
Oil in water
Made from homogenization
NOT pasteurization which kills bacteria
HTST- 162 for 15 seconds
Antioxidants to prevent mold
Vitamin C
Sulfur dioxide to prevent browning of fruit
Others for fats- BHA, BHT, TBHQ, PG

Preservatives- prevents molding in bread- sodium or potassium propionate
Smoke point of a fat
can see whisk of smoke come off flat surface of fat- want a fat with long chain fatty acids- don't want to use butter when you fry becaue it has low smoke point (short chain)- don't want a fat with emulsifiers because they come off at a lower temperature- want a pure fat like lard- peanut oil- NOT CRISCO
Non-enzymatic browning
Caramelization- sugar above 300 degrees
Maillard- concentrated milk, caramels- proteins/carbs
Enzymatic browning
Polyphenol oxidase- to prevent/inactivate these enzymes you can blanch (like enzymes that destroy color in vegetables)
Collagen- moist heat makes gelatin
Coarse vs. fine
Coarse- unflavored- cold water-hot water- cool

Fine (flavored)- pulverized, hot water first, then add cold water and cool
When to add fruit to molded type salad with unflavored glatin?
Looks like unbeaten egg white- then thickens and food will stay suspended
Fold and meringue
Fold heavy cream
Spanish cream
Stirred custard and gelatin
Evaporated milk
60 percent water removed
Sweetened milk
Add sugar to it 15 percent- concentrated- 42 percent solids
Browning that concentrated milk undergoes
Processed cheese products
take any remnanets of cheese- melted and add stabilizers and emulsifiers

Processed cheese food- velveeta
Spread- cheese whiz

As you go down list, less cheese and more moisture
Ripened Cheese
Bacteria- swiss, limburger, cheddar, romano, parmesan, monterey jack

Mold- bleu, brie, stilton, roquefort
Cream cheese, ricotta, mozzarella, cottage
Whole sale meat
Chuck, Rib, Short loin, sirloin, round, shank, flank, plate, brisket
Retail meat
Individual ones in each part
- rump roast
- shoulder blade steak
- cubed steak
- Delmonico steak
- Wdege bone steak
- Corned beef
- Skirt Steak
Which ones can use dry heat?
Ribs, Sirloin, short loin
Moist heat?
Round, chuck, brisket, plate, shank, flank
Egg yolk- what makes emulsion take place
Part of egg white- protein found in egg whtie
Thin filaments
Thick filaments
T-bone, flat, wedge
Connective tissue
Collagena and elastin
- Collagen is only one that breaks down to gelatin when using moist heat such as braising stweing and swising
Marbling, dispersion of fat within muscles
Finfish- lean vs fatty
Lean is less than 5 percent fat and fatty greater than 5 percent

Fatty- mackeral, tuna, catfish, herring

Lean- cod, flounder, hallibut, yellow pike
Mollusks- clams, oysters, mussles, scallops

Crustaceans- shrimp, lobster, crab, crawfish
Whole fish
Interal organs removed
Drawn and head tail and scales removed
cross section- fish that don't fall apart can be done like this, salmon and tuna
Taken from sides off bone
Broiler Fryer Poultry
9-12 weeks
Roasting chicken
3-5 months
Capon poultry
Castrated chicken
Cornish game hen
Cornish and another breed
Poultry cooking?
can cook it any way
What kind of sugar crystals do you want?
Want them so small that they go undetected by tongue
Like in fudge and ice cream- ice crystals so small they go unetected by toungue- also ee that it won't be sandy- sandiness comes from too much milk solid (lactose)
Must look at ___ when it comes to ice cream?
iciness and sandiness
Most to least sweet sugars
Example of supersaturated unstable product
Inversion of sugar
Will be broekn down to its normal constituents
Sucrose- broken into glucose and fructose
Ways to invert sugar
Heat, Acid, or enzyme known as invertase
Heating sugar above 300 degrees so it starts to melt and turns amber
Soft ball stage
heating-cooling-beating-246 degrees to soft ball stage- put in ice water to form soft ball stage
Crystalline candies
Chocolate fudge, penuche, brown sugar fudge, divinity, marhsmallows
No real structure
High temperature
Interfering agents- something that prevents large crystals from forming- toffee, peanut brittle, lollipops
Caramels- interfering agents and browning from maillard
Fudge- interfering agent
Butter- if sugar falls into cooling solution then get large crystals or seeding
Peanut brittle
Caramleization of sugar- baking soda to neutralize any acids that were formed during caramelization
Caramels cooking
Long slow cooking
How to invert- examples
Cooking fudge to get nice invert sugar or acid like cream of tartar or enzyme like invertase
Done through maillard browning- cream- proteina nd carbohydrates
Overrun of ice cream
air that is incorporated and contributes to body of ice cream
Sandiness from too much lactose (milk solids)
too much free water and affects texture of ice cream
Chocolate vs cocoa
Chocolate- 58 percent fat and 8 percent starch

Cocoa- remove fat from chocolate- 22 percent fat and 11 percent starch, pH 5.2-6.0
Body of ice cream
Mouthfeel, richness
Iciness and sandiness
Cook and hold chocolate at 160 degrees Fahrenheit- cool get the fatty acid in a particular pattern (shine)
Chocolate bloom
Fats come to surface and give choclolate a dull look- temperature going above normal room temperature
Chocolate cocoa substitution
1 tsp chocolate= 3 tbsps cocoa plus 1 tbsp fat
Green tea
Leaves blacnhed- no fermentation- light in color- bitter flavor- tannins (polyphenols)
Partially fermented
Black teas
Fully fermented- darker in color- milder in flavor (lower polyphenol)
Coarse coffee
Medium course (percolate)
Very coarse- french press
Fine coffee
Temperature increase- water
Increase polyphenols
Increase bitterness
Corn syrup
Acid hydrolysis of cornstarch
Decaffeinated coffee
Methylene chloride