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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is food?
Material consisting essentially of protein, carbohydrate, and fat used in the body of an organism to sustain growth, repair, and the vital processes.
Why do we eat food?
To satisfy hunger
To provide nutrients
Psychosocial Reasons.
What is food science?
The study of the composition of food and the processes used to convert raw agricultural products into more acceptable forms.
What is food Quality?
A measurement obtained by grading or classifying a product's chemical and physical characteristics in accordance with predetermined specifications.
Primary Quality Attributes
Microbiological
Nutritional
Sensory
Two Dominant Factors in Evaluation of Food Quality are:
1. Actual chemical or physical measurement of the product
2. Acceptance of Product by testers.
What are the essential elements for food quality evaluation?
Size
Shape
color (flavor, ripeness, degree of cooking, freshness, spoilage)
Structure (baked goods # of holes in bread)
Transparency or turbidity
dullness or gloss
degree of wholeness or damage
Texture
Taste
Factors affecting Taste
1. length of testing time
2. Amount of Flavor
3. Temperature
4. Psychological Factors
5. Color intensity
Miscellaneous Quality Factors
Media Pressures
Culture/Ethnicity/Race
Holidays
Objective Evaluation of Food
Physical Evaluation:
Weight, volume.
Objective Evaluation: Weight/Mass
a)measured by various scale
b) important in food processing/purchasing
Objective Evaluation: Volume
a) use volumeter for solid foods in irregular shape
b) use mess cylinder (or similar) for liquid
Objective Evaluation: Specific Gravity
a) measure of the relative density of a substance/food
b) compare “lightness” of products to that of water (= 1 g at 4°C)
c) a factor in food processing/cooking, packaging and distribution
Objective Evaluation: Moisture
a) moisture content; water activity; juiciness
b) measured by physical (drying oven) or chemical (Karl Fisher titrator) method
Objective Evaluation: Texture
a) hardness; shear; compression; penetration; tensile strength
b) Universal Testing Machine by Instron
Objective Evaluation: Weight/Mass
a)measured by various scale
b) important in food processing/purchasing
Objective Evaluation: Volume
a) use volumeter for solid foods in irregular shape
b) use mess cylinder (or similar) for liquid
Objective Evaluation: Specific Gravity
a) measure of the relative density of a substance/food
b) compare “lightness” of products to that of water (= 1 g at 4°C)
c) a factor in food processing/cooking, packaging and distribution
Objective Evaluation: Moisture
a) moisture content; water activity; juiciness
b) measured by physical (drying oven) or chemical (Karl Fisher titrator) method
Objective Evaluation: Texture
a) hardness; shear; compression; penetration; tensile strength
b) Universal Testing Machine by Instron
Objective Evaluation: Weight/Mass
a)measured by various scale
b) important in food processing/purchasing
Objective Evaluation: Volume
a) use volumeter for solid foods in irregular shape
b) use mess cylinder (or similar) for liquid
Objective Evaluation: Specific Gravity
a) measure of the relative density of a substance/food
b) compare “lightness” of products to that of water (= 1 g at 4°C)
c) a factor in food processing/cooking, packaging and distribution
Objective Evaluation: Moisture
a) moisture content; water activity; juiciness
b) measured by physical (drying oven) or chemical (Karl Fisher titrator) method
Objective Evaluation: Texture
a) hardness; shear; compression; penetration; tensile strength
b) Universal Testing Machine by Instron
Rheology
a) is the study of the flow of matter
b) Viscosity: resistance to flow (of a liquid)  generally ↓ with an ↑ in temperature
c) Viscometer/Amylograph
Color
a) measured according to CIE (Commission Internationale de L’Eclairage (Illumination)) or the Munsell system
b) colorimeter
Chemical Evaluation of Foods: pH
a) measuring hydrogen ion concentration = -log [H+]; 0-14
b) use pH meter
c) governing factor for functional/biological properties of living organisms (foods)
d) important measure of quality and for processing
Chemical Evaluation of Foods: Nutrients
a) particular importance in labeling
b) often use chromatography or other technique according to AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) methods
Chemical Evaluation of Foods: Sugar
a) also in labeling
b) use refractometer; unit = degree Brix (percent sucrose)
c) factor for microbial growth and food spoilage/preservation
Chemical Evaluation of Foods: Flavor
a) often use chromatography to measure volatile and non-volatile flavor components
b) support/compensate sensory analysis
Chemical Evaluation of Foods: Proximate Evaluation
a) Carbohydrate
b) Lipid/fat
c) Protein