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56 Cards in this Set

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Bacterial Classifications
Gram Stain Reaction
Shape
Spore-forming ability
a unicellular procaryote found almost EVERYWHERE
bacteria
MULTI or unicellular eucaryotes
molds...remember they are multi-cellular
UNICELLULAR eucharyotes
Yeasts...rememeber they are only UNIcellular
example of a protozoa
Giardia Lambia : when you drink water out of stream, lakes, etc..water is full of bacteria
single celled eucaryote
protozoa
Which form is most visible?
molds
What do microorganisms do to food?
give them unpleasent appreance and bad taste
FAT TOM!
Food
Acidity
Tempurature
Time
Oxygen
Moisture
Water Activity in bacteria, yeasts, and molds
Bacteria: .90 or greater
Yeasts: .80 or greater
Molds:.70 or greater
Difference between Aerobic and Anaerobic
Aerobic:requires oxygen
Anaerobic: cannot tolerate oxygen
most common aerobic microbe is...
mold
Psychrophiles
like the cold
10-15, which is like in a fridge
Thermophiles
like heat
50-80
bad for canned items
Mesophiles
close to body temp:30-37
Role of microbes
-spoilage
-pathogenic***
-useful
Food Spoilage **
utilization of components like CARBOHYDRATES and PROTIENS by microbes results in changes that degrade or spoil foods
the enzyme ___________ is used by organisms to cause FRUIT and VEGETABLE rot
pectin esterase
pectin esterase, lactase, and cellulase all cause _____
spoilage, softening, rotting
metabolizing proteins = ?
bad smells in foods
_____is a metabolism that occurs under anaerobic conditions
Fermentation
The _____ ______ producing bacteria are the MOST common organisms used in food
lactic acid
Homofermentors
produce a single compound
Heterofermentors
produce more then one compound
______ ________ are used to initiate modt food fermentations
starter cultures
_________are used to coagulate milk proteins
enzymes
Used to make yogurt
Lactobacillus delbrueckii
Streptococcus thermophilus
Steps to Fermenting Sausage
Grind
Mix
Stuff
Incubate**(90-120F)
Cook or Dry
Fermenting Fruits and Vegetables
Leuconostoc mesenteroides
Lactobacillus brevis
Pediococcus cerevisiae
Pediococcus cerevisiae is used for fermenting what?
fruits and vegetables and pepperoni
food borne illness is any illness _________
resulting from ingestion of food
some molds produce ________
mycotoxins
mycotoxins can cause:
vomiting, gangrene, renal disorders, and liver cancer
bacteria causes three classes of disease
1.infection
2.intoxication:contaminated by toxins
3.intoxification:produces a toxin
most common biological hazards
bacteria
molds
viruses
parasites: protozoa and worms
mad cow disease is caused by
bovine spongiform encephalopathy
Danger Zone is :
40-140 F
toxicant
any chemical substance that can elicit a detrimental effect in a biological system
Antimicrobials
therapeutic drugs used to treat certain disease conditions
Prophylactic treatments prevent or minimize disease conditions
antimircobials include _________
antiprotozoal drugs: treat ENTAMOEBA and SALMONELLA
dewormers
antibiotics
antimicrobial antibiotics include:
penicillin
sulfa drugs
erythromycin
chloramphenicol
streptmyocin and gentamycin
examples of pesticides
organochlorines (DDT)
organophosphates
carbamates
fumigants
plant horomones
NOT PENICILLIN
Whats a part per billion
1 gram per billion grams of food
1 inch in 16,000 miles
1 second in 32 years
1 cent in $10 million
Whats a part per million?
1 gram per million grams
1 inch per 16 miles
1 minute per 2 years
1 cent per $10,000
Allergens: What is an allergy?
abnormal response to a food that is triggered by the immune system
Allergens: Common allergies?
peanuts, tree nuts, dairy products, eggs, wheat, soy foods, fish, shellfish
Allergens: What is a food tolerance?
sensitivity to various substences that does not involve the immune system

EX: aspartame, MSG, sulfites
What is risk assessment?
method to determine the toxcity of chemical hazards and determine the probability that humans will be exposed
systems affected by toxicants?
respiratory
gastrointestinal
renal
nuerological
dermatological
spores
cells that are protected against adverse enviromental conditions
vegetative cells
cells capable of rapid growth become spores when enviromental conditions become unfavorable
difference between lag, log, stationary, and death
lag:no/slow growth
log:rapid growth
stationary:as many cells dying as being created
death:food is gone
microorganisms benefit food because the ferment things like....
cheese
wine
pickles
soy products
by-products produce undesirable changes in food like...
off odors
strange colors
slime
"fizz"
**dont always make the food unsafe though
more pathogens will be in _______ then in _________
high protein foods-lots of pathogens
high salt/sugar foods-few pathogens
Acidity?
The lower the ph the safer the food!!!