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67 Cards in this Set

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touch
mouthfeel..soft, hard, grimy
--consistency, astringency, chemethesis
consistency
firm/thick, with touch
astringency
dry/puckering, drawing out of proteins

cranberries, lemon
chemethessi
feels 'hot' or 'cold in mouth
mints
hearing
affected by h20 content -> freshness/done-ness

ppl on diet miss crunch
amt fat -->
amt h20 -->
amt fat --> flavor last longer
amt h20 --> quickly detected, disappears fast

reduced fat cooking tastes sweeter
hard t replace specific fats (butter, bacon etc)
sight
first impression
color changes all,
odor and classification
almost equal to sight
75% of what taste=smell
2-4,000 odors
hot foods = volatile
classification
1) spicy, flowery, fruity, resinous (eucalyptus), burn and foul

2) fragrant/sweet (hard to have sweet smell, can have sweet taste), acid (sour), burnt, and caprylic (goaty)
taste
MOST influential
taste buds on tongue, pharynx NOT central area
combo of vol/nonvol subs
middle of taste bud is pore when saliva collects, pools

pool -- gustatory cell--brain--"taste" sensation
5 taste stimuli
sweet
sour
salty
bitter
savory
taste buds
location of: sweet
tip tongue, chem config
taste buds
location of: sour
tip tongue and side, acids, H+ ions
taste buds
location of: salty
side,
ionized salts
taste buds
location of: bitter
back, lingers caffeeine
taste buds
location of: savry
amino acids, "unami"

MSG -> meats more sweet, taste to bigger degree,
sugar ____ to acidity
sugar decrease acidity, bitterness
acids __ to saltiness
acids increase saltiness
taste interactions
--> new taste
ex salt to grapefruit increases sweetness
threshold level
amt it takes to tasete, varies
subthreshld
brings out other (cant taste salt in watermelon)
factors affecting taste
envir, temp, genetics, clear palette,
flavor
combo of taste, odor, mouthfeel, 75% aroma
biotechnology
aka genetic engineering, alteratin of a gene in bacterium, plant or animal
ex: golden rice, link best w/ best
genetically modified organism (GMO)
plants, animals, microorgans have genes altered thru genetic eng, combo rDNA and technology
fear of biotechnology
gene contamination, allergies, religious/cultural, no labeling now by FDA
hope for biotechnolgoy
eliminates peanut allergy
< pesticide
milk and babies
faster/better food supply

benefits low income ppl, not high income

lese crop disease, growing situations, spoilage, transportation
categories of GMOs
1) real food ex: corn
2) food derived from actual ex: corn meal
3) GMO food: food w/ single ingred from GMO ex: amino a's, vits, colors
4) foods w/ ingreds frm [E] <-ed by GM foods
Flavrsavr tomato
1st approved by FDA
left on vine til full ripe
organic cert
100% 100%
organic 95+
made w/ organic 70%
some organic <70%
organic food rules
before 2002 no regulation
1) ->ed w/ mst pesticides/ferts
2) no GMO's
3) livestock (-) antibiotics
4) food [P] no irradiated
difference test
subjective/analytical/discriminative

diff b/t samples --> triangle, duo trio, paired com, ranking, ordinal
triangle
subjective/analytical/discriminative/difference

samps presented same time
two are same, one diff
ID oddball
duo-trio
subjective/analytical/discriminative/difference

3 samps same time
standard
which one closest to standard?
paired comp
subjective/analytical/discriminative/difference

2+ samps, selected which has more of comp
ranking
subjective/analytical/discriminative/difference

paired cocmp
2+ samps
ranking lowest to highest for intens of certain charac
ordinal
subjective/analytical/discriminative/difference

scale w/ words "weak" "strong"
describe samps in diff magnitude
sensitivity test
subjective/analytical/discriminative

detect flavor
->threshold/dilution
threshold
subjective/analytical/discriminative/sensitivity

what pt sub recog'd/not detected
dilution
subjective/analytical/discriminative/sensitivity

min detec level
flavor profile/texture profile
subjective/analytical/descriptive

used to detail certain flavors
hedonic tests
subjective/affective tests/

--> product score sheet, 1-9 appearance, odor, color etc
descriptive tests
subjective/analytical/

--> flavor profile and texture profile
discriminative tests
subjective/analytical
personal pref
subjective/affective tests/

--> paired pref test: sim to paired comp but pref of 1 samp, rank under 3 cats in order of pref
microscope
observe micro-orgs
ex starch granules, grain in meats, crystals of sugar/salts, fiber in fruits/vegs, any texture
spectrophometer
measure color, amt wavelength light transmitted, based on mols in foods/bev absorb light at diff wavelengths

amt of absorp = amt of sub in sample

ex amt of acffeeine in coffee, [] f riboflavin in milk
weight
physical test /objective eval

lbs/ozs, mg/g/kg
vol
physical test /objective eval

3-d space, usually (l), area taken up by an object
density
physical test /objective eval

[ ] f mass/vol,
specific density = subs dens in = amt H20
penetrometer
physical test /objective eval

tenderness, stimulates teeth biting
Warner-Bratzler Shear
physical test /objective eval

meat/baked [P] tenderness
force to cut thru cylndrical sphere
Shortometer
physical test /objective eval

tenderness baked goods, cookies, crackers for breakage, puncture testing for vegs/fruits
viscosity
physical test /objective eval

resistance of (l) to flow freely, --> friction of mols vs surface
line-spread test
physical test /objective eval

consist of batters/other viscous food

test: in hollow cylinder in middle of spread sheet, cylinder lifted, food spreads --> spreading D measured in cm
viscometer
physical test /objective eval

viscosity of food like pudding, sour cream, sauces, cake batter, ketchup
polarimeter
physical test /objective eval

[ ] organic compounds (esp sugars) in sol by determining angle (refractive index)f polarized light passed thru solution

ex: sugar in soda
Brix/acid ratio
part of polarimeter test

palatability of fruit juices, balance tartness and sweetness

test: degree Brix (measured from refractometer) divided by total acid []
atomic absorption
physical test /objective eval

measure mineral content
Benedict and Fehling test
physical test/chemical test

amt of sugars (reducing)

ex: lactose/maltose b/c those >er likely turn foods brown
chromotography
physical test/chemical test

ID presence various compounds, esp those associated w/ flavors
electrophoresis
physical test/chemical test

certain proteins charac'd by passing elec field thru gel containg proteins and measuring rates which they migrate
[E] tests
physical test/chemical test

2 ways:
peroxidase 1: [peroxidase [E] activity in pasteurized food..if heat of pasteruized food enough to hurt harmful bacteria --> inactivate peroxidase [E]

measuring catalse [E] activity = effectiveness of short boiling food that --> veggie deterioration
Fuchsin test
physical test/chemical test

detects aldehydes in fats/oils
Iodine value test
physical test/chemical test

degree of unsat in fats
Peroxide value test
physical test/chemical test


extent of oxidation that occured in fat
pH meter
physical test/chemical test

detects amt acidity/alkalinity in food mixes/bevs
proximate analysis
physical test/chemical test

sev tests determine macronutrtion (protein, fat, carb) of food