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114 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
jtip of blade on cutting board
base of knife fwd/bkward motion
1-3 in long
1/16-1/8 in wide
cut leaf veggies into thin strips

roll into cigar-like shapes and cut into shreds
cut into even size
chop very finely
hold hands on tip of knife
vertical cuts no go all way thru, 2nd cuts do
remove skin

cut in circular motion top of skin, scre skin thru flesh and peel in segments
knife sections do what?
tip - delicate, chop 'shrooms
center - all purpose, chop
heel - heavy, celery stalk
measuring fat
each stick = 1/2 cup
1 lb butter = 2 cups

let solid fats becme plastic (can be molded/shaped), also water displacement method
amts under 1/4 cup measured w/ spoon

accuracy: 3/4 c measured w/ 1/2 and 1/4
measuring granulated sugar
fractional measuring cup, spatula
measuring brown sugar
pressing firmly, level,
measuring confectiners' sugar
sifted to let out lumps
1 3/4 c = 1 c granulated in weight

after sifting, measured same was as granulated
measuring white flour
ALWAYS sift befre hand, tendency to pack..particles differ in size/shape...
conventional (creaming) method
"cake method", most time consumig

1) cream it: work in fat and sugar together, gradually add in sugar
2) eggs in
3) alternate dry/moist

fat/sugar creamed til light
gradually add sugar
-> viscous mass, cake can't rise, texture fine
too little stirring: cake
lw-vol cake, no even distrib ingreds

texture: > pores
conventional sponge method
"conventional meringue methd"
same as cream except part of sugar mixed w/ beaten egg and egg foam folded int batter @ end

foam/sponge cakes b/c -> vol

air at end increases vol
single-stage method
"quick-mix" or "one-bowl" or "dump methd"

all dry/(l) in together same time

higher amt sugar, (l), emuslifier

creaming not part of process

more fluid that conventional (creaming)

start w/ dry, fat, part of milk, flav, then eggs and rest of (l)
measuring flour
hard to measure b/c granules
only sift if tells you too
diff weight b/c sifts air out
what do we use to cook with? (4 types)
(not a tool, environmental aspects)
air, water, fat, steam
cooking with air
roast, broil
cooking with water
stew, poach, simmer
cooking with fat
saute, fry
cooking with steam
pressure cooker
150 F (66 c)
bubbles on side/bottom
ex: milk to increase mixing
212 F (100c)
bubbles fast
1) rolling boil, + food
2) --> boil again
3) decrease heat to a gentle boil

* decrease heat when reach boil b/c no cook any faster
partialy boiled, finish later
put food in H20 quickly
before canned/frozen
loosens skin, kills [E]
160-180 F (71-82 c)
partial/total immerse
no bubbles, almost still @ bottom

ex: delicate foods, fish/eggs b/c will break w/ >er heat
brown fat
moisture - low lid
< amt of (l) in casserole --> (l) own juice, fat, soup stock, wine

medium thickness
simmer in < med amt (l) -> sauce
covered pot and simmer long time
day after=good taste

ex: chopped meat/veg in casserole
180 F (82c)
barely rising bubbles, break surface
ex: tough meats --> tender
rice, soup, stew boil then simmer
food w/ steam from boiling H20
1) put food in rack/basket above boiling H20
2) cover pot to trap steam
ex: veggies
steaming: en papillote
wrap food in fiol before baked/grilled
in oven/grill

cooks by steam of own juices
browning --> ____
browning --> flavor
dry heat prep
baking, roasting, broiling, grilling BBQ, sear, baste
moist heat prep
con: nutrients leak out

scalding, poaching, simmering, stewing, braising, boiling (blanching/parboiled), steaming
heat/hot air
avg 350 F (77 c)
rack position for baking
top: brown too much
bottom: burn underside
1 rack or stagger air flow
2 in b/t pan and wall

5: toast bread, 2 rack baking

4: broiling, 2 rack

3: most baked goods on cookie
sheets, jelly roll pan,
frozen convenienec, 2 rack

roasting > meats,
pies, souffle, 2 rack
baking: pan color
shiny metal: cakes/cookies
dull metal: browner crusts
glass: (-) temp 25F
using air, sim to baking except is for meat/poultry
roast @ < temp than sear -> juicier, < shrjinkage, easier carve

ex: meats/poultry
+ (l) to surface, stops drying
every 20 min

ex: drippings, (l) fat, sauce
brown surface of meat by short duration exposure

used when roasting meats

400-450 F (200c-230c)

+ texture, color, flavor
using air to cook
cook UNDER strong heat source (vs grilling which is above)

only 5-10 min
ex: tender meat/poul, fish

move rack close/far from source
ex: thicker far from heat,
thin closer
low-intense broiler, aka cheese melter

brown top just before serve
heat foods in fat
--no H20
types vary by amt of fat

sauteing, stir fry, pan broil, pan fry, deep fry

**lower heat = >er fat absorp**
< amt of fat (sim to stir fry)

frying pan, griddle
ex: eggs, pancakes, burgers
stir fry

pan still, stir quickly

med-high heat

< amt of fat, sim to sauteing
pan broiling
usually meat in hot frying pan
pour out fat
med-high heat
pan frying
when pan broil and no pour out fat

--> mod amt of fat, no cover food totally
med-high heat
deep frying
350-450 F (177c- 232 c)

total cover w/ fat

breading/batter protects food absorbing too much fat
sugar --> ___
sugar --> browning
types of heat transfer
conduction, convection, radiant, induction, microwave
direct <-- --> heat to another in contact

heat --> pan --> food

increases KE
<-- --> heat w/ air or (l) through and/or around food

heated air >es -> less dense, rises to surface

cooler, heavier air (l) on top --> bottom

ovens -> dryness, sim to steam, deep fry
radiant heat
<- -> heat due to waves of particles moving outward from source

ex: broil, grill, microwave
doesn't brown
easy to overcook

rotation of polar ends
dry AND moist heat
== 500 F, toughen many meats
good for < # items

ex: turkey/fish, no connective tissue
<- -> heat w/o contact

ex: flat range, no exposed coils
brings out other flavors
2nd most used food additive

+ in small increments

flavor enhancer, preservative, binder, texture enhancer, color aid, control agent
pastry-blend method
1) fat cut into flour w/ pastry blender/scissor fashion -> mealy mixture

2) 1/2 milk and all sugar, baking powder and salt blended

3) eggs, rest of milk in
biscuit method
1) all dry combo'd 1st
2) fat cut in -> texture cornmeal
muffin method
Do the 2 step!

1) dry and moist mixed sep, 2) then blended til dry become moist
any compound enhances flavor alreayd there
sub + new flavor to food
meats, soups, sauces, salads

comes from berries of tropical climbing shrub
"friend of physicians"

from leaves
frm other parts of plant

allspice, safffron, cinnamon, poppy seeds, celery seeds

not garlic, onions

ethnic meals: peppers, chili powders

ginger and tumeric
rhizome: underground stem that ->
1) shoots that vert/horiz -> new plants, rise up
2) roots that grown downwards
: underground stem that ->
1) shoots that vert/horiz -> new plants, rise up
2) roots that grown downwards
flavor enhancers
MSG: Asia, meat,

"umami", 5th taste

processed foods, spaghetti sauces, frozen meat

can -> nausea, diarrhea, dizzy, headache, etc
oil extracts
from natural sources: flowers, fruits, leaves (peppermint), bulbs (garlic), bark (cinnamon)

very []ed

used for flavoring puddings: candy, ice cream, cakes, puddings

ex: vanilla beans
seasoned (l) that flavor/tenderize foods

only for very thin

ex: meats, poultry, fish

contains: oil, acid, flavorings

put food in marinade, leave in fridge for a few days
wheat or corn based flour

flour -> eggwash-> bread/crumbs -> rack/tray

crumb coatings
wet flour mixtures containing water, starch and seasonings into which foods are dipped before being fried

flour -> batter -> deep fry
how much/when flavoring to add
start with 1/4 tsp/lb of meat or (l)

when: seasonings near end f heating period aka *sweating*, when food esp veggies become soft/translucent
F, not yet born a calf

more desireable than cows (who HAVE born a calf)
M, castrated, for meet only

weight gain fast
not castrated, for breeding purposes only

when older -> slaughter for puppy chow, processed foods
baby calf, controversial

3 wks-3 mos

fed milk-based diet -> very tender, milky texture

restricted movements, pale color
free range veal
veal < tender
3-8 mos
"baby beef"
8-12 mos
lamb and mutton
lamb: <14 mos
mutton >14 mos, darker, tougher, stronger
hard to tenderize -> stew

slaughtered b/t 7-12 mos
< 4 mos
> 4 mos
muscle contraction
muscle fibers -> actin and myosin, contraction

bone: how tell cuts of meat
connective tissue

what you want to cook, ligaments and tendons

increased CT = increased tough
effects of collagen on tenderness
primary protein
pearly white, tough, fibrous

supports muscle, prevents overstretching

collagen increases as age and toughness increase
"silver skin"
very little in meat
increase tenderness, prime cuts
deposited in mkuscle
antibiotics in meat
protects from disease, increase growth
affect on medicinal?
hormones in meat
not common, EU banned it

enviro? humans
pigment of meat
what you look for in meat, quality
effects of heat on color of meat
initially changes raw purple-red meat -> bright red

denature pigments containing proteins -> well done, greyish

storing meat -> green, faded
moves O2 to muscles, demonstrates amt of red color

lots exercise

purple red before slaughter
smoked/cured meat
+ extractives,
nitrate changes color
+ sugar -> pink
Fed Meat Inspection Act 1906
guarantees wholesomeness and little else
anything killed in US/moved b/t state lines = inspected

inspection stamp for crossing state lines
USDA/food safety
no ensure quality/tenderness
licensed vet, e. coli testing

HACCP in slaughter houses
*slaughter house, human, animal must be clean
voluntary, but get a seal
cut b/t 12th and 13th rib
quality grades
prime: smooth, fine grained, > marbling


select: tougher,
5-20% <fat than choice
40% < fat than prime
yield grade
1-5, 5=worst

amt of fat, bone compared to actual muscle

not for veal
pork 1-4
natural tenderizing based on
cut, age, fat

also: hereditary, diet, marbling, slaugh. conditions, rigor mortis
rigor mortis
1-2 days after slaughter, stiffening of joints

no O2 -> lactic acid -> pH decrease > binding H20 to muscle proteins -> juiciness?
[E] tenderizing
only in thin cuts
decrease rigor mortis

papain: pineapple
retain moisture

grinding, cubbling, needling

break down outside of proteins

increase flavor/color/surface area
large part of carcass

divdied into retail cuts
terminology for cuts of meat..
not standardized!
cuts of meat for beef
no > 30% fat

diff b/t hamburger and ground beef: hamburger ground w/ fat

regular ground beef/hamburger 30% fat
lean: <23%
extra lean <15%
to decrease amt of fat in beef cuts
+ extenders

dry milk, veggie proteins, plant starches, soy protein
veal cuts
tender despite cut
pork cuts
usually tender b/c low age

much longer, 14 ribs
variety meats
organ meats