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51 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what is the structure of the bovine kidney how is it different from other animals
bovine kidney is lobulated. multipyramidal type
separate medullary pyramids capped by a continuous cortex
each medullary pyramid that fits into a calyx formed by a terminal ureter branch.
terminal ureter branch-> forms a single ureter
what do urine dipsticks rely on to detect acetoacetate and acetone
nitroprusside
does B-hydroxybutyrate react with nitroprusside
fuck no; and that is the importatn one
what are acetone and B-hydroxybutyrate derived from
acetoacetate
what is assumed to be present if a urine ketone test is positive in a bovine
acetone and B-hydroxybutyrate
if B-hydroxybutyrate predominates will you have a neg or positve ketone test
negative
what can cause a false positive for proteinuria on a urine dipstick
highly alkaline urine in ruminants
who can have proteinuria and its OK
neonatal ruminants less than 2 days old that have ingested adequate colostrum
what can cause proteinuria?
any insult to the glomeruli or tubules could lead to mild or moderate proteinuria
(renal infarcts, glomerulonepthritis, tubular nephrosis, amyloidosis, pyelonephritis, inflammation, urine mixed with vag discharge)
what causes glycosuria- basic stuff-
blood glucose spilling over into the urine
renal threshold in ruminants > 80-100 mg/dL in peripheral blood
what can cause a false positive glycosuria
penicillin, tetracycline, asprin
what is the best way to dx hematuria
microscopic is best
what can't a urine dipstick differentiate hematuria from
hematuria, hemoglobinuria, or myobloinuria
where can hematuria originate from
kidney, urethra, ureter, bladder, or vagina
what can frank blood in the urine be caused by
pyelonephritis, calculi, or cystitis
what color is myoglobinuria and what causes it
brown to brownish-red
causes:
exertional myopathy
downer cows
coffee weed poisoning
diffuse nutritional myopath (vit E/ sel def)
what color is hemoglobinuria and what causes it
reddish urine due to marked intravascular hemolysis that exceeds renal threshold
causes- water intoxication, hypotonic IV fluids, onion, rye grass, bacillary hemoglobinuria, leptosporsis (calves), babesiosis, post parturient hemoglobinuria, some plants and heavy metals
what causes bilirubinuria
obstructive jaundice (rare), caused by: biliary stones, abscess, neoplasia
is urobilnogen of diagnostic use in cattle?
no
what causes urine leukocytosis
UTI, infection, obstruction, cystitis
1-5 WBC/ HPF is NORMAL
gross pyuria= pyelonephritis or cystitis
when will you see hyaline casts
they are protein and when there is severe nephrosis
when will you see granular casts
when there is damage to the tubular epithelium
what is fraction excretion for urinary tract dz test
collect current urine and serum samples
what is the fractional excretion equation
FE= ((urine Na x Serum Cr)/ (urine Cr x serum Na)) x 100
what does it mean if you have a low fractional excretion
Na retention by kindey= pre-renal problem
what does it mean if you have a high fractional excretion
Na wasting by kidney = intrinsic pathway
what is the normal FE of Na+ in sheep?
< 1%
what does > 1% Na+ of FE in sheep mean
primary tubular dz or Na+ toxicosis
what is the etiology of ulcerative posthitis and vulvitis (enzootic balanoposthisis, pizzle rot, sheath rot)
dz of ext. genitalia of male small ruminants. occasionally females and cattle. most common in OLDER males. affects lambs < 6mo
which breeds of sheep are more affected by ulcerative posthitis
merino and angora breeds due to their dense wool and hair coats
when will you see hyaline casts
they are protein and when there is severe nephrosis
when will you see granular casts
when there is damage to the tubular epithelium
what is fraction excretion for urinary tract dz test
collect current urine and serum samples
what is the fractional excretion equation
FE= ((urine Na x Serum Cr)/ (urine Cr x serum Na)) x 100
what does it mean if you have a low fractional excretion
Na retention by kindey= pre-renal problem
what does it mean if you have a high fractional excretion
Na wasting by kidney = intrinsic pathway
what is the normal FE of Na+ in sheep?
< 1%
what does > 1% Na+ of FE in sheep mean
primary tubular dz or Na+ toxicosis
what is the etiology of ulcerative posthitis and vulvitis (enzootic balanoposthisis, pizzle rot, sheath rot)
dz of ext. genitalia of male small ruminants. occasionally females and cattle. most common in OLDER males. affects lambs < 6mo
which breeds of sheep are more affected by ulcerative posthitis
merino and angora breeds due to their dense wool and hair coats. the urethral orifice becomes urine soaked increasing the local urea concentration
how is ulcerative posthitis transmitted
contagious through necrotic debris from the ulcers
venereal transmission has been documented
which bacteria causes ulcerative posthitis
corynevbacterium renale its aerobic gram positive pleomorphic bacterium
normal flora of skin and ext genitalia
where can cornebacterium renale live
in wool and scabs for up to 6 months
what provides protection for cornebacterium renale from freezing
exudate
what is required for induction and maintenance of ulcerative posthitis
urine is required for induction and maintenance of the lesion. cornebacterium renale hydrolyzes urea to ammonia which causes ulcerations-> c. renale proliferates on genital mucosa in response to inc. urea concentrations -> diets high in crude protein, non-protein nitrogen, or diets high in legumes -> elevation of urinary urea concentration
what are clinical signs of ulcerative posthitis in males
moist ulcer at the mucocutantous jxn of the prepuce. little to no bleeding associated with scab removal.
focal swelling at cranial prepuce
painful palaption
infection spreads and cuaes fibrous adhesions between the penis and prepuce
what are some CS of goats with ulcerative posthitis
goats vocalize upon attempts to urinate. stricture of the urethral process, decreased breeding soundness
what are clinical signs of ulcerative vulvulis in females
ulcerative lesions can develop on the vulva nad perinuem of ewes and does, vulvular enlargement, dysuria, distortion of vulvular conformation which can impair copulation and or parturition
d/dx for ulcerative posthitis and vulvulis
ulcerative dermatosis (lip and leg ulcers)
contagious ecthyma (orf)
what kind of virus is ulcerative dermatosis and what does it cause
pox virus
granular lesions that bleed easily
ulcers on lips, nares, coronets, and interdigital spaces
where and what lesions does contagious ecthyma (orf) cause
effects genitalia occasionally
most often on lips, face, and udder
raised proliferative lesions with thick durable scab
ZOONOTIC