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23 Cards in this Set

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Acidemia
When the pH of arterial blood is less than 7.4 it is termed:
Acidosis
A systemic INCREASE in hydrogen ion concentration is termed:
Aldosterone
Hormonal regulation of sodium balance is mediated by this:
Alkalemia
When the pH of arterial blood is greater than 7.4 it is termed:
Alkalosis
A systemic DECREASE in hydrogen concentration is termed:
Angiotensin I & II
Angiotensin I is an inactive polypeptide, which is then converted into Angiotensin II by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), located in the lung, which stimulates the secretion of Aldosterone and also cause vasoconstriction.
Baroreceptor
Nerve endings which are sensitive to changes in volume and pressure.
Buffering
Occurs in response to changes in acid-base status.
Chloride
The major anion in the ECF (external cellular fluid), & provides electroneutrality, particularly in relation to sodium.
Compensation
Renal & respiratory adjustments to changes in pH are known as:
Correction
Occurs when the values for both components of the buffer pair (carbonic acid and bicarbonate) return to normal.
Decreased urine formation
Renal disease or decreased renal blood flow contributes to water excess.
Dehydration
Water deficit but is also commonly used to indicate both sodium loss and water loss.
Dilutional hyponatremias
Occur when the proportion of TBW to total body sodium is excessive.
Edema
The accumulation of fluid within interstitial spaces.
Hyperchloremia
Too much sodium or too little bicarbonate.
Hyperkalemia
Elevation of ECF potassium above 5.5mEq/L.
Hypertonic hyponatremia
Develops w/ hyperlipidemia, hyperprotieninemia, and hyperglycemia.
Hypochloremia
The result of hyponatremia or elevated bicarbonate concentration, as in metabolic alkalosis.
Hypokalemia
Potassium defiiency.Develops when pot. concentration falls below 3.5 mEq/L.
Hyponatremia
Sodium deficiency. Develops when sodium concentration falls below 135 mEq/L.
Hypoosmolar hyponatremia
When TBW exceeds the increase in sodium.
Hypovolemia
Pure sodium losses may be accompanied by loss of ECF, causing: