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53 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The most obvious and life-threatening problems are seen when?
dehydration decreases the plasma volume
Dehydration results in?
fluid volume deficit
Define isotonic dehydration?
water and dissolved electrolytes are lost in equal proportions
Define hypertonic dehydration?
water loss is greater than electrolyte loss
Define hypotonic dehydration?
electrolyte loss is greater than water loss
What happens to circulating blood volume in isotonic dehydration?
*circulating blood volume decreases (hypovolemia) and leads to inadequate tissue perfusion
*loss of plasma volume causes problems
In hypotonic dehydration, what is the relationship between plasma, interstitial fluid, and cells?
fluid moves out of plasma and interstitial space and into cells, causing cells to swell
In hypertonic dehydration, what is the relationship between plasma, interstial fluid, and cells?
fluid moves out of cells and into interstitial spaces and plasma, causing cells to shrink
Common causes of hypertonic dehydration include?
excessive sweating
hyperventilation
ketoacidosis
prolonged fevers
watery diarrhea
early-stage renal failure
diabetes insipidus
excessive sodium bicarbonate
administration
tube feedings
dysphagia
impaired thirst
unconsciousness
impaired motor function
systemic infection
Common causes of hypotonic dehydration include?
chronic illness
chronic renal failure
malnutrition
excessive fluid replacement
Common causes of isotonic dehydration?
hemorrhage
vomiting
diarrhea
profuse salivation
fistulas
abscesses
ileostomy
cecostomy
frequent enemas
profuse diaphoresis
burns
severe wounds
long-term NPO
diuretic therapy
GI suction
Cardiovascular effects of dehydration?
increased pulse rate
thready pulse quality
decreased blood pressure
postural (orthostatic)
hypotension
flat neck and hand veins in
dependent positions
diminished peripheral pulses
weight loss
Respiratory effects of dehydration?
increased repiratory rate
increased depth of
respirations
Neuromuscular effects of dehydration?
decreased cns activity
(lethargy to coma)
fever
Renal effects of dehydration?
decreased urine output
increased urine specific
gravity
Integumentary effects of dehydration?
skin dry and scaly
turgor poor, tenting present
mouth dry and fissured,
pastelike coating present
Gastrointestinal effects of dehydration?
constipation
decreased motility
diminished bowel sounds
Hypotonic dehydration can result in?
skeletal muscle weakness
Hypertonic dehydration can result in?
hyperactive deep tendon
reflexes
increased sensation of thirst
pitting edema
___________ __________ area of an infant is greater than that of an adult relative to their respective _________ so infants ________ more _______from their skin than adults do and are at higher risk for ____________.
Body surface
weights
water
dehydration
Normal daily output and intake is about?
2600 ml
What is the daily output for
skin?
600 ml
What is the daily output for lungs?
400 ml
(200 for each side)
What is the daily output for kidneys (urine)?
1500 ml
What is the daily output for intestines (feces)?
100 ml
Daily total intake of liquids is?
1500 ml
Daily total intake of solid foods is?
800 ml
Daily total intake of water of oxidation?
300 ml
Examples of sensible losses are? They are so deemed because they are measurable.
urination
defecation
wounds
Examples of insensible losses because they can't be measured are?
skin
lungs
Define extracellular?
interstitial and intravascular spaces
Which structures separate intracellular fluids from extracellular fluids?
capillary walls and cell membranes
In an adult, the total amount of intracellular fluid averages ____ of the person's body weight or about _____ Liters
40%
28
The total amount of extracellar fluid averages ____ of the person's body weight or about _____ Liters.
20%
14
In adults, interstitial fluid (surrounds cells accounts for about ____ of extracellular fluid.
75%
In adults, intravascular (or plasma) accounts for about ____ of extracellular fluid.
25%
Transcellular fluids are other fluids besides extra and intracellular fluids and are located in which places?
(5)
cerebrospinal column
pleural cavity
lymph system
joint
eyes
About ______ of the body weight of a full-term neonate is water.
80%
About _____ of the body weight of a premature infant is water.
90%
In a typical 154 lb lean adult male, about _____ of body weight is water.
60%
_________ cells hold much of the body's water while _____ cells contain very little water.
Skeletal
fat
The body's fluids are found in these 3 types of solutions?
isotonic
hypertonic
hypotonic
_________ _________ is considered isotonic because the concentration of ________
in the solution nearly equals the concentration of ________ in the blood.
Normal saline
sodium
sodium
Fluid imbalances occur in the elderly population because?
their skeletal muscle mass declines.
(Skeletal muscle cells hold lots of water. The elderly are more prone to get fat cells which does not hold water.)
After age 60, water content drops to about ______
45%
About _____ of body's total fluid volume is made up of plasma and remains stable through life.
5%
Define hypotonic solution?
The first solution has a lower SOLUTE concentration than the second solution, so the fluid is going to flow to the second solution.
(So the first solution is hypotonic to the second solution.)
Half-normal saline is considered ________ because the concentration of sodium is lower than the concentration in patient's blood.
hypotonic
Define hypertonic solution?
The first solution has a higher SOLUTE concentration than the second solution, so the fluid is going to flow to the first solution. So the first solution if hypertonic to the second solution.)
A solution of dextrose 5% in NS is considered ______ to patient's blood?
hypertonic
(because the concentration of solutes in the NS is greater than the solutes in patient's blood.
If a hypotonic fluid is given to a patient, it may cause too much fluid to move from the _________ into the ___________, and the __________will swell.
veins
cells
cells
If a hypertonic solution is given to a patient, it may cause too much fluid to be pulled from ______ into the ___________, and the cells may __________.
cells
bloodstream
shrink
Define diffusion?
SOLUTES move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration by passive transport, because no energy is used.