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77 Cards in this Set

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Water accounts for what % in your body? and were is it mostly found?
Water accounts for 99% of the volume of the fluds outside cells and is an essential ingridient of cytoplasm."MOST OF YOUR BODY WT IS FLUIDS"
Extracellur Fluid where is it found? ECF?
Interstitial fluid, plasma, and other body fluids.
Intracellualr fluids? ICF?
cytosol
Stabalizing the volume, solute concentrations, and pH of the ECF and ICF involves three interrelated processes:
1. Fluid Balance
2. Electrolyte Balance
3. Acid-Base Balance
FLUID BALANCE: what are the primary source of water gain and lost?
Digestive System is the source of water gain.
(sm amts metabolic activity)
Urinary System is the source of water lost.
(sweat glands when body temp elevated)
Electrolyte
are ions released through the dissociation of inorganic compounds; they are so named b/c they can conduct an electrical current in a solution.
You are in Acid-Base balance when?
the production of hydrogen ions in your body is precisely offset by their loss. When the balance exists, the pH of body fluids remains within normal limits.
Where does our total body water is mostly contain in the ECF or ICF?
ICF
Minor components of ECF are ?
lymph, CSF, synovial fluids, serous fluids(plueral,pericardial,& peritoneal fluids), aqueous humor, perilymph, and edolymph.
The ECF anf ICF together are called?
Fluid Compartments
Principal IONS in the ECF are ?
Sodium, Chloride, and Bicarbonate.
The ICF contains IONS in abundance, what are they?
Potassium, Magnesium, and Phosphate ions, plus large numbers of negatively charged proteins.
Exchange among the subdivision of the ECF occurs primarily across.....
The endothelial lining of capillaries. (simple squamous).
& Fluid may also travel from the interstitial spaces to plasm through lymphatic vessels that drain into the venous system.
All the Homeostatic Mechanisms that monitor and adjust the composition of body fluids respond to change in the ???
ECF no in the ICF. In the ICF is contained within trillions of indiv. cells that are physically an chemically isolated from one another by their cell memb.
No Receptors directly monitor fluid and electrolyte balance but ....
receptors can monitor PLASMA VOLUME and OSMOTIC CONC.
Plasma volume and osmotic concentration are good indicators of ?
the state of fluid balance and electrolyte balance for the body as a whole
Cells cannot move water molecules by active transport so
what moves water across cell memb?
all movement across cell memb & epithelia occurs passively, in response to osmotic gradient established by the active transport of specific ions , such as (sodium and chloride)
"Water follows Salt"
The body's content of water or electrolytes will rise if dietary gains exceed losses to the environment, and will fall if losses exceed gains.
homeostatic adjustments generally affect the balance bt urinary excretion and dietary absorption
Major physiological adjustments affecting fluid balance and electrolyte balance are mediated by 3 HORMONES:
1. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
2. Aldosterone
3. Natriuretic peptide (ANP and BPN)
where are the osmoreceptors located ?
Hypothalamus
What are Osmoreceptors?
specialized cells that monitor osmotic conc of the ECF
What are the population of osmoreceptors and what do they secrete?
Neurons and secreter ADH
When you increase the release of ADH it has two imp effects?
1. stimulates water conservation at the kidneys; reducing urinary water losses and concentrating the urine
2. stimulate thirst center, promoting the intake of fluids
Secretion of Aldosterone by the adrenal cortex plays a major role in determining the rate of ....
Na and K loss along the DCT and collecting system of the kidneys.
The higher the plasma concentration of aldosterone, the more efficiently the kidneys conserve...?
Sodium and b/c water follows salt, the concentration of Na+ also stimulates water retention.
Aldosterone also increases the sensitivity of what receptor on the tongue?
Salt receptor; will increase the intense in and consumption of salty food.
Renin release occurs in response to ?
1. a drop in plasma volume or blood pressure at the juxtaglomerular apparatus of the nephrone

2. a decline in filtrate osmotic conc at the DCT

3. Falling Na+ and K+ conc in the renal circulation
Who release the Natriuretic peptides?
Cardiac Muscles, in response to abnormal stretching of the heart walls, caused by elevated blood pressure or an increased in blood volume.
What effects do Natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP) have?
reduce thirst and block the release of ADH and aldosterone that might otherwise lead to a conservation of water and salt.
When ANP/BNP is released what is the result?
Diuresis; fluid loss at the kidneys, lowers both the blood pressure and plasma volume, eliminating the source of the stimulation
Any factors that affect the _____pressure or the _____pressure will alter he distribution of the fluid within the ECF?
Net hydrostatic pressure and Net colloid osmotic pressure
The movement of abnormal amounts of water from plasma into interstitial fluid is called
Edema
WATER LOSSES: You lose roughly how ml of water each day through urine, feces, and insensible perspiration?
resp losses: 1150 ml
fecal losses: 150 ml
urine losses: 1200 ml
sensible perspiration variable
TOTAL: 2500 ML
Fever cause increase in water losses. For each degree that body temperature rises above normal, daily insensible water losses increases by____ml?
200ml daily
"drink plenty of fluids" when you are sick
WATER GAIN: how much water gain in ml/day?
eating 1000 ml
drinking 1200 ml
metabolic generation 300 ml
TOTAL: 2500 ML
Metabolic Generation
is the production of water within cells, primarily as a result of oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria.
Fluid Shift
a rapid water movement bt the ECF and the ICF in response to an osmotic gradient
Dehydration
or water depletion, develops when water losses outpace water gains.
Conditions that cause water loss are?
1.excessive perspiration(brought about by exercising in hot weather)
2. Inadequate water consumption
3. Repeated vomiting,and diarrhea.

"causes Na+ to concentrate high Hypernatremia"
Therapies for Acute Dehydration?
1. Administer hypotonic fluids by mouth or IV

these procedures rapidly incr ECF volume and promote the sift of water back into the ICF.
Overhydration
or water excess
Conditions that cause overhydration?
1. ingestion of large volume of fresh water or the infusion (injection into the blood stream) if a hypotonic solution
2. inability to eliminate excess water in urine, due to chronic renal failure, HF,Cirrhosis, or other disorders.
3. endocrine disorders, such as excessive ADH production
Sigh of Overhydration in ion is?
low Sodium (hyponatremia)
Treatment for severe overhydration?
administering diuretics and infusing a concentrated salt solution.

That promotes a fluid shift for the ICF to the ECF and returns Na+ concentration to near-normal levels.
Fluid shifts occur rapidly in response to change in the osmotic conc of the ECF and reaches Equilibrium within min to hours: (2 ways)
1. If the Osmotic Concentration of the ECF Increases, the fluid will become Hypertonic with respect to the ICF

2. If the Osmotic Concentration of the ECF Decreases, that fluid will become Hypotonic with respect to the ICF.
1st sign hyponatremia is?
Effects the Nervous System: the indiv will act as if drunk on alcohol. This condition is called Water Intoxication. Very Dangerous, if untx can progress from confusion to hallucinations, convulsions, coma, and then death
Cell Membrane is made of 3 componets?
1. Phospholipids bilayer
2. Cholesterol
3. Protein
Function of cell membrane?
1. Physical Isolation
2. Regulation of Exchange with the environment
3. Sensitivity to the environment
4. structural support
Membrane Lipid
phospholipid bilayer (hydrophobic end and hydrophilic end)
Hydrophobic tails are in the inside of the of the bilayer
Membrane Proteins
must dense than lipids
Name Membrane Proteins?
1. Integral Proteins
2. Peripheral proteins
3. Anchoring Proteins
4. Recognition Proteins
5. Enzyme
6. Receptor Proteins
7. Carrier Proteins
8. Channel
Integral Proteins
are part of the membrane structure and cannot be removed without damaging or destroying the membrane. (transmembrane proteins)
Peripheral Proteins
are bound to the inner or outer surface of the membrane and (like post-it notes) are easily separeated for it.
Anchoring Proteins
attach the cell membrane to other sturcture and stabalize it position. In side the cell. memb proteins are bound to the cytoskeleton, a network of supporting filaments in the cytoplasm.
Outside the cell, other memb proteins may attach the cell to the extracellular protein fibers or to another cell.
Recognition Protein (Identifiers)
cells of immune system recognize other cells as normal or abnormal based on the presence or absence of characteristics of these memb proteins. (many are glycoproteins)
Name Membrane Proteins?
1. Integral Proteins
2. Peripheral proteins
3. Anchoring Proteins
4. Recognition Proteins
5. Enzyme
6. Receptor Proteins
7. Carrier Proteins
8. Channel
Integral Proteins
are part of the membrane structure and cannot be removed without damaging or destroying the membrane. (transmembrane proteins)
Peripheral Proteins
are bound to the inner or outer surface of the membrane and (like post-it notes) are easily separeated for it.
Anchoring Proteins
attach the cell membrane to other sturcture and stabalize it position. In side the cell. memb proteins are bound to the cytoskeleton, a network of supporting filaments in the cytoplasm.
Outside the cell, other memb proteins may attach the cell to the extracellular protein fibers or to another cell.
Recognition Protein (Identifiers)
cells of immune system recognize other cells as normal or abnormal based on the presence or absence of characteristics of these memb proteins. (many are glycoproteins)
Enzyme Protein
Enzyme cell memb may be integral or peripheral proteins. They catalyze reactions in the extracellular fluid or the cytosol. Depending on the location of the protein and its active sites.
Receptor Proteins
in the cell memb are sensitive to the prescence of specific extracellular molecules called ligands.Will bind to it and and may trigger changes in the activity of the cell.
Carrier Proteins
bind solutes and trasport them across the cell membrane. teh transport process involves a change in the shape of the carrier protein when solutes bind occurs. The protein returns to its original shape when the solute is released.
Channel (IONS) Proteins
some integral proteins contain a central pore, or channel that forms a passageway completely across the cell membrane.
(only water and small solutes can cross)
Carbohydrate Membrane
componets of complex molecules such as proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and glycolipids.
Form a layer called Glycocalyx
Glycocalyx Functions
1. Lubrication and Protection
2. Anchoring and Locomotion
3. Specific in Binding
4. Recognition
3 forms of transport of cell membrane?
1. Diffusion
2. Carrier-mediated Transport
3. Vesicular Transport
Diffussion
is the net movement of material form an area of higher concentration to area of lower concentration.
The difference bt the high and low concentration is called?
concentration gradient
(and thus a potential energy gradient)
Important factors that influence diffusion rate include:
1. Distance
2. Molecule Size
3. Temperature
4. Gradient Size
5. Electrical Forces
Osmotic pressure
of a solution is an indication of the force with which pure water moves into that solution as result of its solute concentration.
Hydrostatic pressure
pushing against a fluid
Osmolarity or osmotic concentration
the total solute concentration in an aqueous solution
Tonicity (how the solute affects the cell) use istead of
Osmolarity
Isotonic
a solution that does not cause an osmotic flow of water into or out of a cell
Hypotonic solution
water will flow into the cell, causing it to swell up like a balloon, the cell will eventually burst , releasing its contents. (hemolysis)
Hypertonic slolution
will lose water by osmosis, as it does the cell shivels and dehydrates. The shrinking of RBC's is called Crenation/